A similar doctrine called the Plural Covenant theory emphasizes other covenants in addition to these two major systems. Dualism: An understanding of reality as existing in two opposite extremes. Ethical dualism posits a conflict between universal good and an equal and opposite force of universal evil e. Dungeons and Dragons: Occult , fantasy role playing game , allegedly uses demonic names and spells found in occult literature. Some parents have charged that children committed suicide under the influence of the game. Dyer, Wayne: Prominent New Age writer and spokesman focusing on business applications, personal transformation and motivational speaking.
Also promotes holistic health , and Buddhism. Dynamic Monarchianism: A late second-century heresy denying the Trinity, put forth by Theodotue of Byzantium and later adoped in modified forms by Paul of Samosata, Noetus and Prazeas. An active member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , Eadie claims to have died, gone to heaven, and returned to her body see near-death experiences. Her books contain a combination of New Age and Mormon beliefs. Earth Church of Amargi, St.
Louis, MO: Paganism , ritual magic , witchcraft see Wicca , moon festivals, Kabbalah , goddess worship. Earthmother Therapy Center: Astrology , aura reading, chakra balancing, channeling , homeopathy , iridology , numerology , palmistry , past life regression , reflexology. Eckankar, Paul Twitchell: Mixture of pantheism and eastern mysticism , astral projection , reincarnation.
Emmanuel, J. Publishes The Gap newsletter. Emerald Circle: Paganism , know the Divine within, be part of Gaia. Enneagram: Occult symbol. Erhard, Warner: See est. Esoteric: Hidden or deeper knowledge held by an elite few. See Gnosticism , Occult. ESPress, Inc. See National Spiritual Science Center.
Essene Light Center, Mary L. Teaches the world has no objective meaning, enlightenment, and to live moment to moment with no regard for the future. New Age themes. In the midst of mounting troubles, Erhard decided to leave the United States. Est was discontinued and replaced by The Forum. Evangelical Christianity: Evangelical from the Greek euangelion, good news or gospel generally means a focus on the essentials of Christianity. The term can be used to describe all Christians or churches that hold to or give heavy emphasis to specific conservative Protestant beliefs.
More specifically the term has come to be closely identified with a widespread trans-denominational shift towards more conservative Christian doctrine that developed after World War II. See Fundamental Christianity. Exit Counseling: Thought Reform Consulting A non-coercive technique in contrast to deprogramming designed to help rescue members of religions or cults that are considered false, harmful, or dangerous. The approach stresses true personal and religious freedom in the context of providing additional information and full disclosure, which facilitates more informed decision-making.
Family counseling and intervention techniques may also be incorporated. Extrasensory Perception ESP : Alleged knowledge of an experience or a response to an external event apart from the five senses. This experience can take place either in a wakeful or dream state. Publishes The Contender newspaper. Publishes The Faith Word magazine.
False Prophecy: Generally, any teaching by a prophet that is not true. Familiar Spirit: A spirit that can allegedly communicate with humans, often through possessing the body of a medium , channeler , or psychic. Also, a special type of demon that can impersonate a deceased person during attempts to communicate with the dead see necromancy. Not related to the following entry. Not related to previous entry.
Critics have expressed concern over the tremendous amount of time often invested in the games. More disturbing are reports that the games often emphasize rape, violence, spells, magic and other occult themes. Some parents have also charged that their children committed suicide while under the influence of FRP. Farrakhan, Louis: Leader in the Nation of Islam. New Age , automatic writing , ascended beings. Fellowship of Isis: Paganism.
Egyptian gods and goddess worship. Feminism: See Radical Feminism. Feng Shui teaches that there is an energy called Qi or, Chi flowing throughout the universe, and in this world through lines, sometimes called channels or meridians, to which one must be properly aligned for optimal health, fortune, and quality of life. Practitioners therefore arrange household and office furniture, design rooms and even whole buildings, their grounds and gardens, etc.
They thus hope to improve the balance of nature around them, not only for their own benefit, but for the benefit everyone in the area. First Temple of the Craft of W. See also Unarius Education Foundation. Publishes the Zen Notes newsletter. Flirty Fishing, Ffing : Allegedly discontinued practice of using sex to entice converts into The Family. Publishes the Update newsletter. Followers of Christ Church, Walter T. White, Oregon City, OR: Practices shunning , exhibits legalism , and holds to a strict faith-healing doctrine. Doctors and hospitals are not allowed. State medical examiner claims as many as 25 children have died in the last two decades from complications from otherwise common medical problems.
Form Criticism: A method of literary criticism used by many scholars in the interpretation of the Bible. It identifies the literary forms of specific parts of the biblical writings, such as the different types of psalms thanksgiving, lament, etc. By noting common features in passages of the same form, various conclusions are drawn about how to interpret those passages. In liberal Christianity , which pioneered this method, many of the forms are assumed to be legendary or mythical especially those involving the supernatural.
Some evangelical scholars think form criticism can be useful if such liberal assumptions are avoided, while other evangelicals reject form criticism outright. See also Redaction criticism. Fortunetelling: A form of divination in which a person attempts to predict the future using alleged paranormal powers.
The Forum: New Age , personal transformation seminar; see est. See also Process Church of the Final Judgement. Publishes the Divine Truth Commentary newsletter. All religious leaders, including Jesus, Mohammad and Buddha were sent by God. Publishes A Call To Wisdom newsletter. Fox, Kate and Margarett: See Spiritualism.
Free Bible Students: A small Bible Students splinter group currently consisting of only four congregations and approximately 27 home groups. Most modern adherents maintain that the organization is not a religion but a club or fraternity promoting high moral values and good works. They believe, therefore, that Freemasonry is compatible with and supplements Christianity and other religions. Critics counter that Freemasonry involves secret blood oaths or curses, and that the writings of respected early leaders Albert Mackey, Albert Pike, etc. More specifically, the term is identified with the conservative reaction, especially in America, to liberal Christianity in the early 20th century.
Core beliefs of the movement are virtually identical with evangelical Christianity. Some fundamentalists, however, later distinguished themselves from evangelicals or neo-evangelicals whom they saw as too compromising and ecumenical. See More on Christian Fundamentalists. Publishes The Appointed Time newsletter. Gaia: Originally the Greek goddess of earth. Many see the earth as one large living organism made of numerous parts, much as the human body is one living organism with various parts.
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Publishes The Gandhi Message quarterly. Pyramid powers. Turgeon once claimed to be the prophet Elijah. He and another member, Blaine Alan Applin, were charged with first-degree murder in following the shooting death of former member Daniel Jess. Earlier that year a SWAT team served a warrant on the group's five-acre compound located 60 miles north of San Diego and recovered weapons and other stolen property.
Gateway To Light, Lloyd G. Gawain, Shakti: New Age author who popularized Buddhism through creative visualization meditation techniques. Ghosts: Non-physical entities or spirit beings, often believed to be the spirits of the dead. See Spiritualism , Demon , Necromancy , Occult. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Globalism: When used in a religious sense, this term most often means to lose all national identity. Mankind must see itself as one world family, without the need for distinctions between religions.
All religions become true or the distinctive doctrines of the various religions must be disregarded in an attempt to achieve the new Global Family idea. Publishes the Sunspot magazine. Gnosticism: From the Greek word gnosis knowledge. Salvation comes through secret knowledge. A diverse belief influenced by Greek philosophy and similar to forms of pantheism , Gnosticism generally taught that matter was evil and spirit was good. Forms of gnosticism affected early Christianity.
One Gnostic heresy taught that because matter was evil, Jesus could not have come in the flesh. See Baphomet. Goddess: New Age , occult , neo-paganism. A term used in various though related senses to affirm a feminine nature or aspect of the divine. Publishes Sacred Cycles newsletter. Golden Wheel, W. Good, Joseph: See Hatikva Ministries. Most false gospels teach a form of either salvation by works or universalism. Great Invocation: A New Age prayer written in by Alice Bailey see Arcane School and circulated by various New Age groups that believe widespread recitiation may help initiate a new utopia on earth.
Publishes The Covenstead newsletter. Great White Brotherhood: New Age belief in a group of spirit beings or reincarnated teachers, also called Ascended Masters , existing on a non-physical higher plane. Stevens, Jr. Allegedly practices mind control and shepherding. Guided Imagery: Another term for Visualization. Guideposts: Magazine founded by Norman Vincent Peale. Gurdjieff, George I. Considered by some to have been the greatest mystical teacher of all times. However, in its modern American form it is a holiday based on pagan , occult , Celtic beliefs and Druid rituals.
Believed to be a religious high or holy day by those involved in witchcraft see Wicca and Satanism. Celebrated on October 31st, children are encouraged to wear costumes and solicit candy door-to-door Trick-or-Treat. Halpern, Steve: Prominent New Age music composer and lecturer. Harmonic Convergence: A New Age , social, environmental and personal transformational event formulated by Jose Arguelles, based on alleged Mayan prophecies and astrological conjecture.
Other significant dates were 31 December and a culmination in Publishes The Pathfinder magazine. Hay, Louise: New Age , metaphysical counselor and author. Practices Kundalini Yoga , vegetarianism, and overcoming painful thoughts to move toward enlightenment. Publishes the Harbin magazine. Publishes the Heart Dance magazine. Applewhite a. Do and 38 other members committed suicide in March of , believing that by leaving their bodies behind they could join Nettles a. Ti and other "older members" from "the next level above human" on a UFO supposedly hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet.
Heresy: Literally, a theological dissension or division arising from diversity of opinions and aims. The term is usually reserved to refer to false teachings considered so serious that belief in them excludes the followers from the true faith and salvation; in other words, a belief viewed as fatal to the gospel. Religious groups founded on the basis of heresy are known as cults. Heretic: A person who causes a division by teaching heresy. Publishes Windwatch newspaper. Publishes Himalayan Institute Quarterly. Hinduism: The major world religion that originated from the ancient religions of India, which originally embraced polytheism.
As a more unified world religion, Hinduism teaches pantheism ; the ancient gods especially the triad of Brahma , Vishnu , and Shiva are commonly interpreted as representations of the various aspects of the divine Brahman. Human beings progress to the ultimate realization of their oneness with Brahman often called Nirvana through reincarnation according to the law of karma. Some of the concepts of Hinduism are incorporated, modified, and expanded upon in the New Age Movement. Twelve followers or close associates have committed suicide or died under unusual circumstances.
Many left large sums of money to Hoffman. Some holistic health remedies and assumptions i. Much within this movement, however, is based on pantheistic concepts, New Age visualization , and eastern religious beliefs such as Chinese Taoism Yin and Yang. Most questionable are holistic practices that have no valid physiological explanation or scientific proof such as applied kinesiology , reflexology and iridology. Blighton: Monastic New Age group that practiced esoteric , mystical religion blending biblical themes with reincarnation and other concepts from Eastern religions and the occult.
Blighton, an ex-engineer who was once fined for practicing medicine without a license, began the order in After advancing through the order, men reached the status of Brown Brother of the Holy Light, while women might become an Immaculate Sister of Mary for Missionary Training. After the death of Blighton, the group underwent radical changes. The majority of followers converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and the order eventually was transformed into Christ the Savior Brotherhood, a sect of Eastern Orthodoxy.
Several competing groups later formed claiming to preserve Blighton's original purpose and message. Publishes Purarnave periodical. Homeopathy: Pseudo-medical holistic health techniques developed by Samuel Hahneman whereby minute doses of natural elements are said to cure diseases. Publishes the Homeword newspaper. Horoscope: See Astrology. House of Divine Bread, J. House of Yahweh, Yisrayl a. Sabbatarianism , Sacred Name , British Israelism , only true church. Houston, Jean: Prominent New Age spokesperson and author of many books on education in the American school system.
Hubbard, L. Ron: Late founder of the Church of Scientology. Hunger Project: Claims to help poverty-stricken people using visualization to rid the world of hunger. See est. Hypnosis: Technique inducing an altered state of consciousness or trance by verbal or non-verbal stimuli. Participants experience reduced ability for critical thinking and are generally open to external suggestion. See Mesmerism. Founded ; directs praise and adoration on the 18th century French occultist, St. Publishes Voice of the I AM magazine.
I Ching: Yi King or The Book of Changes Ancient Chinese method of divination , predicting the future using random casting of the stalks of the yarrow plant or three-lined diagrams Trigams representing, among other things, Yin and Yang. Identity Movement: See Christian Identity movement. Iglesia Ni Cristo, Felix Manalo: Rejects the Trinity ; teaches salvation by works , salvation found only in this group. Originally promoted free thought and democratic political theories.
Now believed by many to be an anti-democratic, elitist, conspiracy for one-world-government. Imagery: Alternative term for Visualization.
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Publishes Subconsciously Speaking newsletter. Inner Space Center: See Prosperos. Inner Technologies, Richard Daab, Fairfax, CA: New Age , yoga , astral projection , meditation , reaching Samadhi state of enlightenment , channeling , crystals , visualization.
Insight magazine, Washington, D. Institute for Advanced Perception, Harold S. Taught the world would end in Publishes the Lunar Letter. See Dual Covenant. Founded in with 55, members worldwide. Current president Willis Harman. Former members and critics allege mind control.
Practices shepherding , teaches baptismal regeneration , and claims to be the only true church. Publishes Upside Down magazine. Aggressively recruits on college and university campuses throughout America and internationally. Publishes Insight. International Society of Divine Love, H. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, A. Publishes Back to Godhead magazine.
Investigative Judgment: One of the unique doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that make the place of that church within evangelical Christianity questionable. First taught in Adventism by Hiram Edson, F. Hahn, and O. The doctrine teaches that in the Holy of Holies in the Heavenly Sanctuary Christ is now conducting an investigation into the lives of all who have ever professed belief in Christ.
All those whose lives fail to measure up to the standard of the Law are rejected and condemned as not having true faith. It declares that those who have remained loyal to God shall receive the kingdom.
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Some practitioners also claim ability to diagnose emotional or mental problems. Isis Unveiled: See Rosicrucianism. Islam is the second largest world religion, and has recently become the third largest religious body in America with over 6 million adherents. Islam rejects the Trinity doctrine, the deity of Christ and His Sonship, claiming that Jesus was only a great prophet. Muhammad is considered to be the greatest prophet, whose coming was allegedly predicted by Christ. Islam adheres fiercely to monotheism.
While many Muslims exhibit tolerance towards other faiths, even today Islamic fundamentalism promotes jihad holy war , against those of other religious and political views. J Jainism, Mahavira: A world religion begun as a reform movement of Hinduism. Mahavira b. Later followers deified Mahavira himself, calling him the 24th Tirthankara last great savior teacher who descended from heaven without sin and with all knowledge. Jesus: The founder and central figure of Christianity.
Even ancient, non-Christian sources corroborate some historical facts about His life and ministry. By far, the oldest and fullest historical information is found in the New Testament Gospels. The sources support the historic, traditional Christian belief that Jesus is the second Person of the Trinity , that he was and is fully God and fully man, that he was born of a virgin, died on the cross as a substitutionary atonement for our sins, and rose bodily from the dead.
Jesus Only: Nickname for Oneness Pentecostalism. See Modalism. Publishes an annual catalog. The Israelites returned to the promised land of Canaan and became a small but powerful nation there under the rule of King David and his son Solomon. The northern kingdom was conquered and decimated by the Assyrians in BC, after which the term Judeans, or Jews, gradually came into use to refer to all Israelites.
These themes dominate the rest of the Jewish Bible, which is identical with the Protestant canon of the Old Testament. In the first century AD, Christianity originated with the belief that Jesus was that promised Messiah. What is now known as the religion of Judaism originated after AD 70 as the rabbis, or teachers of the Torah, developed a system of laws and interpretations of the Torah that were eventually codified in the Talmud.
Today Judaism can be identified as a cultural, ethnic, or religious concept. There are three main branches of modern Judaism: Orthodox traditional, literal adherence to the Torah as interpreted by the Talmud , Conservative a middle position advocating traditional beliefs and practices up to a point , and Reform liberal, non-literal stance on the Torah and Talmud; often non-religious or secular with emphasis on Jewish culture. Kabbalah: Various spellings Mystical Jewish teachings intermingled with teachings of gnosticism , Neoplatonism, magic and the occult.
The word Kabbalah means secret oral tradition and was coined by an eleventh century Spanish philosopher, Ibn Gabirol. The philosophy developed in Babylon during the middle ages from earlier Hebrew speculation and numerology. Kairos Foundation: See Life Training. Karma: The Hindu principle of cause and effect. Representing neither good nor evil, all actions and events are balanced with corresponding actions and events in the past or future including past and future lives through reincarnation.
Karma Yoga: See Karma , Yoga. Katherine, Brooklyn, NY: Astrology , psychic development. Keen, Sam: Prominent New Age teacher and author. Publishes Utopian Eyes magazine. Klassen, Frank, Ft. Knight, J. Koresh, David: See Branch Davidians. Kosmon: See Universal Faithists of Kosmon. Krastman, Hank: See Metaphysical Union. Krieger, Dolores: See Therapeutic Touch. Publishes Yoga Quest magazine. Devotion to Krishna has been introduced in the West especially through the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.
He later renounced that role to be the head of the newly created Order of the Star. Teaches alternative mystical experiences. Also, the form of yoga that seeks to focus that force. Kunz, Dora: See Therapeutic Touch. Myers, FL: Bible Students group. Lao-tzu: See Taoism. Membership estimates range between and 1, members. The group is believed to own or control more than 24 companies and have holdings in Nevada, Idaho, and possibly Arizona and Mexico.
Lazaris: Spirit supposedly channeled by Jach Pursel. Or, a system of religious rules must be kept to please God or religious leaders, sometimes resulting in a kind of spiritual abuse. Liberal Christianity: A movement that seeks to retain religious and spiritual values of Christianity while discounting the infallible authority of the Bible.
Its origins are in the German Enlightenment, notably in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant and the religious views of Friedrich Schleiermacher. Liberals reject the stated authorship and historical accuracy of many books of the Bible. They are skeptical concerning many or all of the biblical miracles, preferring naturalistic explanations or viewing miracle accounts as legend or myth. They often deny or reinterpret in mythical terms such doctrines of orthodox Christianity as the virgin birth, atoning death, and even the resurrection of Jesus.
Liberalism has been most influential in mainline Protestant denominations and is rejected in Evangelical and Fundamentalist Christianity. Liberation Theology: A movement that attempts to unite theology with social and religious concerns about oppression. It finds expressions among blacks, feminists, Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans, but it is most closely identified with the shift toward Marxism among Roman Catholic theologians and priests in Latin America.
Most traditional doctrines of Christianity are de-emphasized or reinterpreted. Jesus and the Bible are defined and interpreted in light of a class struggle, with the gospel seen as a radical call to activism or even revolution promoting political and social answers usually in the form of classic Communism. Life Training, Dallas, TX: New Age seminars that seek to awaken people to a new level of awareness and belief systems; Eastern spiritual philosophy.
Lifespring: New Age seminars promoting human transformation and altering belief systems.
Similar to est. Lifton, Robert: Dr. Lifton studied Mao Tse-Tung's programs of "Thought Reform" or Chinese brainwashing while doing research for military intelligence. His study focused on radical change in personality and belief systems of certain prisoners-of-war who were held and tortured in Chinese camps. This research was later expanded in his work, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism, in which he theorized that subtle elements of these brainwashing techniques could also be found in other environments.
While some elements of these criteria could be found in virtually any group, Lifton warned that an environment of mind control or thought reform exists when all eight are found implemented in the extreme. Publishes the Let There Be Light magazine. Publishes The Lotus quarterly. Publishes The White Light newsletter. Publishes Yoga In America magazine. Publishes the Light Speed magazine. Publishes the Lightworker newspaper. Lion and Lamb Ministries, Monte W. Holds that Jesus is the biblical Messiah.
Legalistic tendencies, Sabbatarianism , practices Jewish holy days. Judah falsely predicted that the Abomination of Desolation prophesied in the Bible would occur by March of promising he would be "totally discredited" and would "shut down" the ministry if wrong. On March 23, he apologized for the false prophecy but reneged on his vow to disband the movement. The application of literary criticism to the Bible can be constructive, although in liberal Christianity the method is typically applied on the basis of antisupernatural and humanistic assumptions.
See further Form Criticism. John will live for eternity on a new paradise earth. Published Shekinah newsletter. Now defunct. See Branch Davidians. Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd. The current president is Carl Weschcke who in acquired the magazine Fate, which now has , subscribers. Their popular catalog, New Worlds, is sold in newsstands nationwide and has a circulation of nearly , Limiting or controlling the thought processes by regulating the language in such a way that communication constricts and limits rather than expands human understanding.
Growth and controversy developed during the administration of their second leader, the late Witness Lee, who moved to America in founding Living Stream Ministry. Some evangelicals have also charged that the church compromises the Trinity doctrine by confusing the Persons of the Holy Spirit and the Son in a way similar to modalism. The organization's exclusivity has also comme under fire. According to Lee, each city can and should have only one church. Denominationalism is seen as of the Devil.
According to critics, the effect is that Lee-led local churches, usually called by the name of their cities e. Thus, according to former members, all other churches or denominations are seen as being outside the will of God or not true churches at all. The Local Church has also gained a reputation for threatening legal action to prevent unfavorable public evaluation of its movement. The Lodge: See Freemasonry. Lotus: New Age periodical. Lucifer: Another name for Satan.
Lucis Trust: See Arcane School. Publishes the Gnosis journal. Publishes Birth Into Light newsletter. M Mackey, Albert: See Freemasonry. MacLaine, Shirley: Former film actress turned New Age author; seminars, channeling , pantheism , reincarnation , chakras. Mafu: Spirit supposedly channeled by Penny Torres. Magi Center, Inc. Magic: Magick Occult ceremonial use of amulets and talismans. May involve necromancy or divination , invocation of infernal deities or use of natural elements to gain supernatural power or knowledge. The word magic is also used to describe a type of stage performance involving legerdemain slight of hand or illusion with no alleged psychic or occult power.
This type of stage magic is not inherently evil, although occultists have occasionally used stage magic in an attempt to claim supernatural abilities. Mahavira: See Jainism. Malcolm X: See Nation of Islam. Mantra: Eastern mysticism or New Age term for a word or series of words that are repeated over and over either verbally or silently. The Mantra is said to help one achieve an altered state of consciousness. Often practiced during meditation or relaxation exercises.
Marah, Madison, NJ: Occult , magic , goddess worship, Egyptian revival, Wicca , moon festivals, divination , runes , astral journeys. Taught Christ would return in Martindale resigned leadership April 20, , after a former member filed a lawsuit accusing him of forcing her into a sexual relationship. Sometimes confused by the uninformed with biblical mandates to care for the poor, and the voluntary sharing of resources practiced by some primitive Christians.
Marxism advocates establishment of a classless, stateless society by revolutionary force; it has always led, however, to totalitarian statism, and has never successfully eliminated any class but the bourgeoisie, the middle class, leaving the great majority of its subjects in poverty. It is militantly atheistic.
Millions of sins, filthy deeds, acts of violence and physical contagions Every defense or justification of the idea of God, even the most refined, the best intentioned, is a justification of reaction. See House of David. Masonry: See Freemasonry. This study demonstrated that differences in identity development and family continuity existed between joiners of marginal religious groups and nonjoiners, and raises these questions: Are certain youth more vulnerable to the appeals of these groups?
With sex controlled, what are the specific influences of parent- adolescent relationships on joining? Taylor, David. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Queen's University. Zerin, Marjory Bernice Fisher. Thesis, The Fielding Institute. Abstract: The problem. The purpose of the study was to identify family system factors in late adolescent vulnerability to cult recruitment. The exploratory case method was employed. Assumptions included: a youth are not equally vulnerable to cults, b family factors in vulnerability exist, and c those factors are associated with dysfunction in the family system.
Twelve California families each containing one or more ex-cult member, comprised the family subjects FS. The individual subjects IS , including the ex-cult members, totaled Three of the 16 index persons resisted cult affiliation after preliminary involvement. Eleven of the index subset had been involved with the Unification Church "Moonies". Data were collected as follows: a the FS performed assigned interactional tasks in the presence of co- raters and a tape recorder and b the IS completed questionnaires.
Three raters independently evaluated the FS using global and individual measures of family functioning and style Lewis et al. Pencil-and-paper data were reviewed. Contrasts were drawn between the two subgroups of index persons and between the index and sibling subsets. A correlation between global assessments of dysfunction in the FS and cult involvement of the index persons was identified. The FS were evaluated as in the midrange MR of dysfunction from the borderline with severe dysfunction SD to the fringes of adequacy. No correlation was established between resistance to cult recruitment and global ratings of family competence.
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Index persons who resisted cult affiliation successfully, however, showed evidence of both inner direction and a strong bond with their fathers regardless of their gender and global family evaluations. They also differed from the balance of the index subset in that they were not placators.
They could and did "say no" when under group pressure to acquiesce. Conjectures are offered concerning family factors in vulnerability of the index subset to cults. Recommendations are suggested for future research. Dean, Roger Allen. Thesis, The University of Michigan. Abstract: The Unification Church was examined in depth to discover why so many young people commit themselves to a totalitarian religious movement so different from their original value system. The Moonies' belief system, their recruitment practices and the typologies of youth who populate the movement were explored and analyzed.
During the course of a year long investigation into the Moonie cult the author interviewed and interacted with cult members and attended their special events and workshop sessions. Former members were also interviewed to ensure a realistic and balanced perspective. Results of the study refute the commonly held assumption that Moonies are brainwashed, unthinking automatons.
By penetrating their logic and belief system one discovers that Moonies are rational individuals acting in a manner consistent with their view of the world. A step by step analysis of the cult's recruitment practices, however, reveals that the Moonies employ a wide variety of proven social psychological techniques to convince recruits to accept their unique perspective of reality. Once a recruit acknowledges the Unification perspective, the ideology provides ample justification for most types of cult behavior which appears bizarre to non members.
Hershell, Marie and Ben Hershell. Abstract: The parents of a yr-old female undergraduate discuss their daughter's involvement with the Unification Church and her subsequent de-programming and rehabilitation. Santmire, H. Singh, Chandralekha P. Abstract: This dissertation is a study of the Hare Krishna conversion career. Conversion to Hare Krishna has been viewed as becoming "deviant" and acquiring a discredited social identity. The research has been directed to discovering the process of conversion and its problematic consequences for the converts. Research Method. Participant observation method was used to collect data.
This included close observation of Hare Krishna devotees--their meanings, philosophy, and activities, and lengthy, unstructured interviews with forty Krishna devotees in two temples. The field research was spread over a period of about two years. Additionally, information was gathered from the movement's literature and other secondary sources. Focus of the Study. Characteristically, the study is exploratory and ethnographic where it focuses on the following aspects of Hare Krishna life: a the development of the career to include social- psychological background of converts, sociohistorical context of conversion, and the stages of the career; and b its social-psychological consequences for the converts, namely, being deviantized and having to manage the "spoiled identity" and discredited faith in the larger social world.
The study delineates various specific techniques that are routinely employed by group members in managing stigma, self-respectability, and maintaining faith. Our research indicates that the pre-converts tended to be adherents of the counterculture youth values and life-styles that originated in the 's and became more diffused among youth in the early 's.
They generally represent the "retreatist," apolitical segment of the youth culture who were in search of spiritual meanings. Wilson, Bryan R. New York: Rose of Sharon Pr. Abstract: Foreword, by B Wilson. Welcoming address, by D Kim. The new religions: demodernization and the protest against modernity, by J Hunter. Youth in search of the sacred, by J Fichter. Disorientations to mainstream religion: the context of reorientations in new religious movements, by D Martin.
Who'd be a moonie: a comparative study of those who join the Unification Church in Britain, by E Barker. Yesterday's children: cultural and structural change in a new religious movement, by R Wallis. The rise and decline of transcendental meditation,by W Bainbridge and D Jackson. Must all religions be supernatural? Apostates and atrocity stories: some parameters in the dynamics of de-programming, by A Shupe and D Bromley. Time, generations, and sectarianism, by B Wilson.
Freed, Josh. Moonwebs: Journey into the Mind of a Cult. Toronto: Dorset Pub. Harrigan, John Edward. Thesis, University of Maine. Abstract: To gain information on religious conversion and commitment of use to counselors, eighteen male Unification Church seminarians were individually interviewed by inviting each to talk about his life and his conversion to the Moonie Family.
Uniform invitations to talk were used to determine predisposition, contact- interaction, and change; spontaneous probing inquiries were made to further explore the reasons for and the circumstances of conversion.
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The questions of the study were answered affirmatively: 1 convertees stated that prior to meeting the Unification Church they felt lonely and alienated; 2 they had active face-to-face relationships with convertors willing to listen to them which apparently led to affective ties occurring before and during introduction to the Divine Principle--ties which seem important in the conversion process whereby a person comes to accept the views of friends; 3 by socialization in their youth they had been taught to believe in a supernatural power; 4 most described an unsatisfactory life situation, being at a personal turning or seeking point in life, just prior to contact with Moonies; 5 finally, they were isolated with Moonies at the time of conversion and commitment.
The attraction of the Divine Principle, extolling unity in a one world family relationship, was not anticipated; otherwise, the findings on conversion are in substantial agreement with those of Lofland and Stark , Gerlach and Hine , and Richardson, Stewart, and Simmonds Considering the religious socialization of the respondents in their youth, their conversion can be described as a shift rather than a change in basic belief. Pattison, E. Abstract: The motivation of youth to join esoteric religious cults considered as psychopathology is a limited and reductionistic interpretation. Youthful devotees do demonstrate symptoms of psychic distress, which appear to be significantly ameliorated through participation in religious youth cults.
Two major trends in social history reveal the sources of youth cults: loss of faith in the rationalistic Western cosmology and loss of the extended family system. The religious youth cult possesses many of the properties of the normal psychosocial system, which is a critical social structure for healthful coping in the World.
As a normative social system, the religious youth cult is an alternative healing system for the existential crises of contemporary youth. Deutsch, Alexander and Michael J. Abstract: Presents a case study of a young woman, raised as a Catholic, who became a member of a religious cult in her early 20's.
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- Cults and New Religious Movements?
- Français et créoles : du partenariat à des didactiques adaptées (Langues et développement) (French Edition);
The influences of certain psychic conflicts and character trends on her attraction to group life and teachings are examined, and the nature of the late adolescent turmoil that preceded her conversion is described. Kim, Byong Suh. Abstract: Unlike the psycho-physical interpretation of the Pavlovian approach Hunter, ; Hinkle and Wolffs, or psychoanalytic notions Lifton, ; Meerloo, on thought reform, we contend in this paper that contemporary religious de-programming of American young "cultists" may be best analyzed in terms of ego-identity change as suggested by Schein The ego-edentity change occurs in interaction with "significant others" who provide a unique plausibility structure through three specific stages: a shock treatment of "defreezing", "protective" or "coercive" persuasion to eliminate "floating" influence of the "cultist mind-control", and readjustment of the changed subjective reality to the larger society.
A set of data was collected through intensive interviews with 17 deprogrammed youths and a few deprogrammers and rehabilitators, and through participant observations in the de-programming-rehabilitation sessions. The data then were used as illustrative and interpretive materials in support of our contention. MacCollam, Joel A. New York: Seabury Press. Schwartz, Lita L. Abstract: Draws on clinical observations, interviews, and literature from a variety of disciplines in constructing a portrait of the vulnerable youth; the techniques used by cults to attract, recruit, and convert members; the dynamics of the recruit's family; and the most effective modes of therapy for intervening.
Doress, Irvin and Jack Nusan Porter. Young people may leave cults because of: disillusionment, the completion of a stage of development, or as a result of a kidnap rescue. Each of these points is discussed briefly. Abstract: Examined religious cults and their current popularity among young people. A very light application of control wax is typically used to groom an ivy league.
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