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In some citizens in the English city through their Lord Mayor, extended to our town an invitation to be rep- resented at their th Anniversary Celebration of their municipal charter, but we were unable to accept. The th Anniversary of our Manchester will take place in Manchester in Lancashire had a long history before it became a city in ROWLEY The late Tracy Elliot Hazen for many years made stud- ies of the New England immigrants both here and abroad, and undoubtedly obtained more knowledge of Yorkshire families than anyone else, and Rowley in that county came in for a large part of his researches for the reason that he is a direct descendant of the early settlers of our Rowley.

His remarks at the Tercentenary celebration in were most enlightening and really gave us an excellent idea of the connecting links between the two towns. Hazen visited the English Rowley, which he reported was pronounced Roeley, and while there it was confirmed that the Rev. Ezekiel Rogers when he felt it necessary to leave his parish carried away with him to New England all the early rec- ords.

It is also well established that he induced twenty families from Rowley and nearby townships to leave their country with him, thereby depopulating the villages, ac- cording to the Rector who showed Hazen around. Richard Rogers, was a prominent Puritan preacher in Wethersfield, Essex County, England, and there his son Ezekiel was born in and spent his youth. The son was called to the English Row- ley and preached in St. I have seen it stated that even the King was apprised of his leaving England. One of the streets here is named Wethersfield in honor of the family.

J ewett, who is one of the prominent citizens in the town and an authority on its history. These two emigrants came from Bradford in West Riding. Evidently a distant relative of Jewett, once Master of Balliol College in Ox- ford, was very learned, for Hazen in his interesting talk, previously referred to, quoted this rhyme appearing in a London newspaper: My name is Doctor Jowett : I am the Master of this College.

All there is to know, I know it : Aught else one thinks he knows. It simply isn't knowledge. Someone prepared this epitaph which, however, was never placed on his gravestone : At Rogers's Head and Shepard's Side, In Creeps this Saint, and's not deni'd ; Come Brother Phillips, come to Bed, Here's room enough, lay down thy head. A native of our town has figured that of the 2, who died in the second century, and whose ages only are recorded, seventy-two were over ninety years of age, and four reached a hundred years or over, remarking that although Me- thuselah lived nine hundred and sixty-nine years, even he too had to die sometime.

The settlement at New Haven desired this group of set- tlers to repair there but Rogers chose a tract of land be- tween Ipswich and Newdmry. Ezechil Rogers, Mr. John Phillips, and their company had granted them 8 miles every way into the countrey, where it may not trench vpon other plantations already settled. He built his house on Weth- ersfield Street. His second wife, the daughter of the Rev.

J ohn Wilson, the first minister of Boston, also died. Soon after this a fall from his horse so injured his right arm that it became useless. Nothing daunted, however, he learned to write with his left hand. I had a rare blessing of servants in Yorkshire; and those I brought over were a blessing; but the young brood doth much af- flict me. Messages, of course, were sent across the water, but it was found impossible for a repre- sentative to appear from the Old Country.

At the end of a long letter Lacey intimated that he thought it might be well to take out War Damage insurance on the Communion Cup dated used by Ezekiel Rogers. The Rector also sent his best wishes. Marshall acted as Master of Ceremonies in a broad- cast in February, , as well as Clerk of the Tercenten- ary Committee. He also has served the town in an official capacity for over fifty years. Rogers in have since been organized wholly or in part, Churches at Bradford, Boxford 1st, South Byfield, Groveland, George- town, Boxford 2d, and Linebrook; thus we have a most in- timate connection with Rowley in Yorkshire, England, and can wholeheartedly say to you all, greetings and best wishes, and to present and past Rectors and the long and faithful Parish Clerk, Mr.

An exhibit during the Tercentenary was a sunken gar- den copied from one at Hovingham Hall in Yorkshire. The next speaker on the broadcast was F. Pay son Todd, a descendant of Rev. Edward Payson, the second Pastor of our Rowley. He was selected to impersonate the character of Ezekiel Rogers in the pageant. Cornelius F. Haley, a leading spirit in the celebration, said : United as we are with the British people, representatives of a great English speaking nation our interests are mutual, in support of your noble defense for home and country, peo- ple of Rowley contribute with ready hands and willing hearts all the aid within their power, to support the defenders of England in their heroic stand against the invader.

Visitors from the old country would certainly find much in the town to remind them of the peace and serenity of some little village deep in the heart of England. There is not much of the modern world hustling and bustling in Rowley. To be born in snch a place, and in the sereneness of old age to die in snch a place, and to sleep at last in the same dnst with the good old fathers of olden times, were enough to fill the cnp of mortal happiness full. There were also Indians, in full costume, carrying the pipe and armour of the late Black Hawk, an Indian chief.

There was the weather vane, made of a thin plate of iron, with the figures, , cut through it, the date of the second meeting-house. In the pavilion were displayed some very ancient books brought from England by the first settlers of Rowley, also a large armchair, with a set of heavy leather-bottomed chairs, supposed to have been brought from England by the first settlers of the town ; the former was used at the cele- bration dinner a hundred years ago. Cooper of Old Rowley in an address before the East Riding Antiquarian Society : From a far away Parish in England From a home life of comfort and ease He had gathered these people together, They had made the long voyage over seas.

And they came to a desolate country, To a life of privation and pain Before them one hope and one vision One ultimate goal to attain. Dodge It is not possible today for an ethnologist to study the indigenous material culture of the Polynesians in the field. Only by visiting many American, European, New Zealand, and Australian museums can one see the tools, weapons, ornaments, household equipment, and clothing of the na- tives as they were before contact with white men.

These, along with all other cultural manifestations of the Poly- nesians, deteriorated with extraordinary rapidity under the white impact, so that within a few years after the opening of the region, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the native culture, in most of the groups, was changed almost beyond recognition. Because of the geographical location of Polynesia, ac- culturation was swift and violent.

Thus hardly had the ink dried on the history-making log books of the Pacific explorers before the region was swarming with traders and whalers, quickly followed by mission- aries, renegade sailors, escaped convicts, and blackbirders. Profitable trades supplementary to those with the Far East quickly developed. Vessels getting sea otter skins on the Northwest Coast stopped at the Hawaiian Islands for food and water, and filled their spare cargo space with sandle- wood. Farther south, sandlewood, pearl shell, beche-de- mer, and tortoise shell all were desirable for the traders to sell to the Chinese.

Under these conditions of accelerated trade, superior articles of European technology rapidly replaced those of native manufacture. Missionaries and sailors unwittingly combined to break down the taboo system of the natives. Unfortunately, with the exception of the mission- aries and some of the traders, the white men with whom the natives were acquainted were, in general, a tough and most un-Christian lot of shrewd traders, rough whalers, and in- dolent beachcombers, to whom it was impossible for the teacher of the Scriptures to point with pride.

Therefore, for some years, the confused native, unable to absorb the intricacies of Christian theology and the discrepancies be- tween preaching and practice before his own restraints were abolished, was inclined to follow the example of his new unruly acquaintances rather than those of the men of God. This does not mean to imply that the missionaries were entirely unsuccessful, for many of them had faithful though small followings. Undoubtedly another reason for the complete collapse of Polynesian culture was the comparatively small popula- tion of the islands in contrast with Melanesia, for example, and the islands of the East Indies, which have wild in- teriors, and, in many cases, dense populations.

In those places white impact was cushioned, was felt at first only in the coastal areas, and did not at once penetrate inland. It was during this turbulent period, so briefly outlined, that the finest examples of Polynesian material culture were collected. But compared with the huge collections from Melanesia, Indonesia, Africa, or other large and rich areas, Polynesian material is rare.

The great collections made on the expeditions of Captain Cook, and those of the other early explorers, are now, for the most part, in English and European museums, are well known, and comparatively well published. Equally im- portant are the superb collections made by the missionaries of the several denominations.

One of the most important of these is that of the London Missionary Society, now in the British Museum. Other important collections made entirely or in part by missionaries were located before the war in museums at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, in Vienna, Berlin, Brainede-Comte, Paris, and the Vati- can Museum in Rome. Less well known but almost equally important are the smaller collections brought back by American sailors and traders, particularly those from Ne w England.

The islands of Polynesia were a favorite place for New Bedford and Nantucket whalers to stop for water and food, and it was not unusual for them to stay at an island for a month or more to repair their ship. During these periods the sail- ors, and particularly the captains of the ships, apparently found it amusing to obtain from the natives not only the es- sential materials needed for their whaling cruise but also curiosities and trinkets of native manufacture to bring back to their wondering families.

Thus the material com- ing into New Bedford and Nantucket was due to an in- dividual interest and not to any planned effort for a par- ticular group of men. That coming to Salem on the other hand was, for the most part, the direct result of the East India Marine So- ciety establishing a Museum. This Society was founded in and its membership was confined to Salem captains or supercargoes who had sailed around either Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope.

This object has been ob- tained to a considerable extent, chiefly by voluntary dona- tions of the members as well as of others friendly to the institution ; and the whole collection is placed in the Hall where the Society holds its meetings. IV, pp. Unfortunately, the sailing man of the early 7 s was interested only in trade, and lacked taste and discrimina- tion for foreign objects. Most of the material, therefore, from China and other places in the Far East is of a sou- 2 Op.

DODGE 31 venir or trade nature. It is doubtful whether the captains would have been able to obtain any really good Chinese porcelains or bronzes, for example, even if they knew the good from the bad. For China at that time was, of course, a highly civilized country, and many of the wealthy man- darins and merchants were collectors and connoisseurs of their own fine things and loath to part with them. From the Pacific Islands and other uncivilized regions, however, the material brought back was of a far different nature ; here was no highly technical civilization, no wealthy collectors, only natives living by their own primitive hunt- ing, fishing, and rudimentary agricultural economies.

Here it mattered not what the captain received in exchange for his hatchets and glass beads. Anything that he got at that early period, judged in the light of present day eth- nology, was certain to be good. Weapons, household uten- sils, fans, ornaments, canoe paddles, tattooing instruments, and, in short, anything of native manufacture which could be found was brought back to Salem. If the specimens had merely been col- lated and stored they would have been important.

They are, however, doubly important because the members of the East India Marine Society had the good sense to cata- logue their material. Thus for the majority of the pieces the name of the donor, who is also usually the collector, and the date of accession is given. This is extremely im- portant for Polynesian specimens, for if enough dated pieces are available the progress of white and native accul- turation can be definitely traced.

Though the Society was directly responsible for organi- zing the tendency of men in strange ports to collect curiosi- 5 Descriptions of many of the early specimens from Poly- nesia are described and figured in the following works : Law- rence Waters Jenkins, The Hawaiian Portion of the Polynesian Collections in the Peabody Museum of Salem Salem, They were prolific collectors and the pieces obtained are among the best. They apparently met somewhere in the Pacific, and Folger pooled his keep- sakes with Crowninshields ; who brought them back to Sa- lem. Another good collection was received from John Fitzpatrick Jeffrie, an English captain who never came to Salem, but who evidently heard of the newly established museum and gave his contribution to a Salem captain whom he met in the Far East, to be delivered to Salem and credited to his name.

Such is the large Hawaiian idol from John T. Prince, in At the time of discovery of the islands such figures were numerous in the native sacred enclosures. Bishop Museum in Honolulu and the British Museum. Another single object of considerable importance, but far less spectacular, is a fan from Mangaia, Cook Islands, given before , which is one of four known specimens, only one other of which is in this country, at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut. Of rarity also are the two large wickerwork neck orna- ments worn by Tahitian chiefs as part of their mourning costumes.

One was given by William Eldridge in , and the other by an unknown donor before These were rare even in the flourishing days of Tahitian culture 6 Ernest S. The single surviving example of a Marquesan malo or loin cloth was received from Captain Israel Williams in Unusual but also of considerable importance are the good series of Hawaiian and Marque- san fans, given by various individuals, and also large se- ries of the well known adzes from the Cook Islands, and the carved paddles from the Austral Islands, nearly all with the known date of accession.

As there is some con- troversy as to whether the elaborate carving on the adz handles and paddles is, or is not, post-European, these long series of definitely dated specimens are of utmost im- portance. Weapons are especially well represented in the collec- tions. They, with fish hooks, were apparently the favorite objects for the captains to pick up, or possibly they were more readily obtainable than other things.

Early contacts between Hew England and the Fiji Is- lands in Melanesia are similar to those of Hew England with the Polynesian groups, and may appropriately be mentioned here. The material culture of the Fijis is closely related to that of western Polynesia and there has been considerable race mixture between the Fijians and the Polynesians of the Tonga group. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century a considerable trade was carried on from Salem to the Fiji Islands and thence to China. Ships called at the Fijis to load with sandlewood and beche-de-mer, sometimes procured by an agent left at the Islands on a previous voyage.

Such an agent, left to direct the natives in accumulating a cargo for the next trip, was in an unusual situation offering excellent facili- ties for collecting native objects. Almost literally cords of clubs were accumulated, all old and good. The rarest Fiji specimen is a model of a native temple made of sennit and having two towers. This is the only one of its kind in existence, all other models of tem- ples having only one tower. It is also unusual because of the rare shell bead ornamentation the Museum has nine of the thirteen known Fiji specimens so ornamented. Although material picked up in the other Melanesian groups is equally good it does not possess the unique qual- ity, nor has it the importance, of the Polynesian and Fiji objects, since while Polynesian and Fiji material has been nearly unobtainable in the field for many years, it has been possible to make good collections in the other Melanesian groups up until very recently, and in some islands such as New Guinea even to the present time.

Certain it is that students of the material culture of Polynesia would have far leaner pickings had not the sailors of a century ago saved so much when it was available. Dynasties and constitutions rise and fall and are forgotten but schools of learning once firmly established seem to go on and on forever. This is because these institutions grow out of a need felt in a community to give the young folks a good start in life and, so long as they adapt themselves to meet that ever changing need, they go on and on.

The oldest ones are so deeply rooted in their communities that it is hard to say when they really were started. In the case of the most ancient of the schools you can only say that there were scholars at Padua or Cairo or Damascus as early as such and such a date. They may have been there much earlier. It is this belief in the continuity of human institutions which justifies starting this story of Governor Dummer Academy with Richard Dummer.

About six miles up the line to London from the dock at Southampton, the train passes very near Bishopstoke where Richard lived before he came to America, so it was not very difficult for him to plan a voyage. He and his family had lived in that vicin- ity for at least four generations and evidently were landed gentry.

He belonged to a Company of Husbandmen, who were interested in planting a colony in America very early, which held the so-called Plough Patent for land on the Ken- nebec River, but he evidently did not develop much interest in it. J ust before he left for America, he settled a rent charge on his lands in England of forty shillings a year for the poor of Bishopstoke and here is the first evidence of that trait of benevolence and public spirit so strong in the Dummer family.

Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 4th Ser. Clark and H. Foote : Jeremiah Dummer, 6. Considering the minute size of those ships, it must have been a little like crossing in the haymow of a floating barn. Richard first settled at Roxbury and the very next year built the first water-power grist mill to be built in New England at the spot now known as Roxbury Crossing.

It is easy to see why this was good cattle country at the beginning when every inch of upland had to be cleared with axe and plough. The great meadows supplying vast quantities of meadow hay were of inestimable value. Further if those meadows brought to Newbury the Dummer and Sewall families, two of the most brilliant families in the colony, they helped the town enormously.

Meanwhile Mrs. Dummer had been drawn into the orbit of that tempestuous female, Ann Hutchinson, and her 3 Winthrop : Diary, Ed. Savage, i, Records i, , Records i. When the inevitable con- flict between disorganized turmoil and the conservative elements of the colony came in , Winthrop was re- elected Governor, Ann and her friends were driven out and Richard Dummer was dropped from the Court of Assist- ants and disarmed.

It does not appear that Richard took any active part in the controversy. Presently he sailed for England, but the new country had evidently secured a firm hold on him. The very next year he returned and brought with him his brother Stephen, his wife and six children and ten servants which included a tailor, a carpenter and a baker. This must have been a substantial reinforcement to the company in Newbury. When her father returned to England ten years later, little Jane remained as the wife of Henry Sewall.

There are three Chief J ustices of Massa- chusetts among her descendants and many other distin- guished men including the poet Longfellow. Richard Dummer bore no malice for his rough treatment by the colony and was the largest contributor to the fund to rehabilitate John Winthrop when the Governor lost his property. He was soon granted a monopoly for grinding corn in Newbury and often represented the town in the General Court. The only child by his first marriage was Shubail Dum- mer who graduated from Harvard College and became the minister of York, Maine. Long years afterwards he was murdered by the Indians at his own door.

In Rich- ard Dummer married as his second wife Frances Burr, a widow with four children. They had five more of whom Jeremiah, the eldest, is the one who interests us most for he was the father of two famous children, Jeremiah the agent of the colony and the author of the famous defence of the New England Charters and Governor William Dum- mer, the founder of the school. The Dummers were business men, not in the scholastic tradition apparently, so Jeremiah was not sent to Harvard College but was ap- prenticed to John Hull when fourteen years old.

John Hull was a silversmith of note but he was a good deal more beside. He was mint master and treasurer of the colony as well as a merchant of wide interests. The story is told that when Hannah Hull was married her father brought out an enormous pair of scales and seating Hannah on one side filled the other side with pine tree shillings till they lifted Hannah off the ground.

That was to be her dowry. Anyway Hull was a good man and an able man. The eight years that Jeremiah lived in his family were well spent and gave him a good start. Like his patron, Jere- miah was much more than a silversmith. He soon was in a position to employ apprentices himself and among others came a member of the Van Hensaelaer family of Hew York. During the later years of the seventeenth century he turned out much fine work. Jeremiah Dummer in married Anna Atwater, the daughter of a prosperous merchant who had moved to Bos- ton from Hew Haven.

Here Jeremiah Dummer lived all his life and eight years later he bought a strip of land adjoining with the privilege of joining his gable end with the gable of John 7 Suffolk Co. Deeds, ix, Of these, William, the eldest, whom we are especially inter- ested in, was born in and baptized in the Old South Church, Sept. Jeremiah, who was nearly as famous, was three years younger.

It is curi- ous how utterly ignorant we are of the childhood and youth- hood of two hundred and fifty years ago.

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In all the diaries and letters of that period children are rarely mentioned ex- cept when they are bom or die, which does not help much in drawing a picture of their young lives. The birth of Mary, the elder sister of William, is just recorded, and the death of his little brother Richard of smallpox only re- ceives a mention of thirteen words.

It is a pretty picture of the two children walking solemnly together on this sad occasion but that is absolutely the only mention I find of William Dummer till after he reached England a full grown man. But to return to the father of the two boys. Jeremiah 8 Suffolk Co. Deeds, xii, He was a captain in the Militia, a selectman of Bos- ton and one of the party that opposed the arbitrary gov- ernment of Andros. For three years until the arrival of Governor Phipps with the Pro- vincial Charter they continued to govern the colony.

For many years he was Justice of the Peace and in was made Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Suffolk County of which he was already treasurer. Jeremiah Dummer became much more of a craftsman than only a silversmith. This shipping activity went on right through the French wars and included fitting out privateers to pro- tect the Hew England trade 13 Jeremiah was also a considerable land owner and bought and sold various parcels in Boston and other property fur- ther afield.

All these various activities made him one of the richest men in the colony and clearly show that his sons may well have inherited brains, energy and char- acter. Mayo ; i, Within the last twenty years, four paint- ings have come to light that can be attributed to him. Where in his busy life he found time for such work is hard to see but the evidence seems most plausible.

These pictures seem to have descended in the Dummer fam- ily which went to Canada at the time of the Revolution. Henry Wilder Foote has discussed at great length the genuineness of these portraits and leans toward the idea that Jeremiah painted them. He received a Ph.

On his return to Boston he was greeted as Dr. Apparently he was most fluent in Latin, 15 but even this did not make him an acceptable preacher, so he returned to England in and became immersed in politics. He had a fine memory and being of a communicative and beneficent disposition, his company was eagerly sought by all lovers of good sense and humanity.

The other pamphlet writ- ten while his brother was governing Massachusetts is a very noble defence of the blew England Charters and it served to defeat a bill then pending in the House of Com- mons to annul the charters. For many years J eremiah was the agent of the colony in London and he was a very able and faithful agent. He never hesitated to inform the Gen- eral Court when he believed they were prejudicing their position in England.

This able frankness finally cost him his office and he was dismissed at the very time that he was publishing his defence of the charters. He was also the agent for the colony of Connecticut and was instrumental in persuading that wealthy reprobate, Elihu Yale, to make the donation of books which resulted in the Connecticut College being called Yale. The Dum- mer family has certainly had much to do with education in America. Jeremiah, Jr. And now we come to William Dummer, eldest son of Jeremiah, Sr. When he went to England is not stated anywhere, but he was in Boston as late as May 4, , when he enlisted in the Artillery company.

Dummer, one of the commissioners at Plimouth, and was in the same post there himself but his wife dying he had returned to his na- tive country. Plymouth was a favorite port of Colonial ships and perhaps he was stationed there. He arrived at Marblehead four weeks out of Milford Haven on May 27, Mayo Ed. His portrait certainly shows him a genial and handsome personage.

The day after his arri- val, Governor Dudley invited Judge Sewall and his brother and Colonel Yetch out to his house in Roxbury to dine and Colonel Hutchinson surprised them all by bringing Mr. William Dummer with him. William did not remain an unattached young widower long, for on April 26, , he married Catharine, the twelfth child of Governor Thomas Dudley. Prob- ably he knew that the quarrel now going on between his new father-in-law and the Council and the General Court could not last much longer and he wanted to be near the field of operations when the new Governor was appointed.

William Dummer must have made a very hurried trip to London. He seems to have been in Boston as late as May 23, when he was in disagreement with Lt. Tailer, 21 and arrived back from London, Sept. Governor Tailer remained in office. William Dum- mer, 22 though Col. Tailer refused to yield the Lt. Dummer until he was actually sworn in. Lieutenant Gov- ernor Dummer alone seems to have known of it and he pro- duced in the Council, on Dec.

He tried loyally to support Col. He overlooked the petty insults even to the reduction of his own allowances and applied himself vigorously to those matters of most importance to the welfare of the province. The harrying of the frontier by the Indians egged on by the French Jesuit missionaries especially in Maine, 26a but extending down to central Massachusetts, was a most burning issue. Even the fisherman on the coast 24 Sewall: Diary, iii, Ed, iv, Governor Dummer guided and directed the defence of the province and finally an expedition was sent against Norridgewock which was the center from which the attacks in Maine were directed, the village was burned, the Jesuit missionary killed and the Indians com- pletely defeated.

The famous expedition of John Love- well of Dunstable against the Pequaket Indians near Con- way in which Lovewell and most of his men were killed but which broke the power of the Pequakets, was part of this war. Dum- mer, Gov. He accepted such grants as the house made him and tried not to interfere in religious affairs. Shute, however, kept trying to stir up trouble in London and the Bishop of London made a furious fuss when the congrega- tional ministers wanted to call a synod, assented to by both houses, the governor and the council.

Even nature con- spired to make trouble with the great earthquake of Oct. Shute was finally retired from the governorship on a pension nearly six years after his departure without ever returning to Mew England, but, George II having ac- ceded to the throne, a friend of his was appointed governor of Hew York and a place had to be found for the displaced governor.

He reached Bos- ton, July 13, , and his short rule of a little over a year was a continual quarrel with other branches of the govern- ment and had little to commend it. Two events, however, closely touched Essex County. Provoked with the people of Boston, he called the General Court to meet at Salem which for a brief period became the capital of Massachu- setts.

The other event was more personal. Then Jonathan Belcher was made governor and Col. Tailer, whom William Dummer had succeeded fourteen years be- fore, was reappointed Lieutenant Governor. His general aim was to do 30 Hutchinson : Hist, of Mass. Col, XXXI, He retired with honor and after some years was elected to the council where from respect to his former commission he took the place of president. Sewall and Joshua Boynton, Esq.

He married Catharine in and it is safe to as- sume that he soon began to spend his summers in Newbury. In Governor Shute, on his way to Portsmouth, was met by the Newbury troop of horse and escorted to the house of Lieutenant Governor Dummer where he spent the night and was finely entertained. Dummer was already living at the farm, but it does not follow that the present mansion house was then built. There seems to be no statement that presents satisfactory evidence of just when it was built.

I do not find that houses of similar architecture were built much before so I am inclined to believe it was built after the Governor retired from of- fice. It was situated on the Old Bay Road running north from Boston to the Eastern settlements and the most im- portant road in New England, and perhaps in the English Colonies, in the early part of the 18th Century. Until 33 Hutchinson : History, Mayo Ed. It was the shortest route and one all the marching troops undoubtedly took.

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On a July afternoon in , Sir William Pepperell, the conqueror of Louisburg and now a baronet, just returned from that arduous but glorious campaign in the forests and swamps of Cape Breton, came riding down the hill sur- rounded by his officers in scarlet uniforms and paused to be greeted by the old Governor. How much of his time he spent in Newbury and how much in Boston there is no means of telling.

Strange as it seems to us now, it was then usual for persons not in haste to make the trip in two days. They broke the journey at Sa- lem or Ipswich. It was therefore hardly worth while to come down for less than a week on a pleasure trip. With advancing age, no doubt the Governor spent longer periods at the farm and made less trips to and fro. He and Cath- arine had no children but they were hospitable and sociable and no doubt had many visitors. It has been pretty difficult to see just why the Parish was named Byfield after Judge Nathaniel Byfield of Bristol, Rhode Island which was then, to be sure, within the boun- 36 iii, The parish was well established when Governor Dummer acquired the farm and he was a regular attendant at the meeting house but we know very little of his life on the farm or of his life in Boston, for that matter.

For thirty years after his retire- ment he lived as a private citizen but none of his papers have come down to us and none of his private letters. He had a large and lucrative farm and thought the income of that farm sufficient endowment for the school he founded. Farms brought in an excellent income in those days and the income was no doubt substantial.

At any rate it did support the school for the first forty or fifty years. The Governor and his good wife had some thirty quiet years together with summers in Newbury and winters in Boston. Their good taste governed the building of one of the loveliest colonial mansions in New England and furn- ishing it with tasteful furniture, if you can judge from the few chairs we have left. The portraits show the Governor as a genial, unruffled personage which confirms all the de- scriptions of him. One cannot be so sure of the temper of his wife from her portrait.

She obviously missed little that was going on and looks as if she might have had a sharp tongue. She is still keeping her eye on the chate- lain of her mansion house. He was a man that any school could be proud to have as a founder. No word of scandal ever touched his name. His will is an interesting document and there are two items which impress one as probably unusual.

One was the founding of the school and the other was that he freed all his negro slaves both in Boston and Newbury. His sister, Anna Powell, then living, and his nephews and nieces are provided for as might have been expected, but the very first item in the will and the one to which he evi- dently gave the most thought was the bequeathing of all his land in Newbury to Dr. Charles Chauncey and Mr. Thomas Foxcroft, ministers of the First church in Boston, and Mr. The appoint- ment of the master also was to be by the minister and five freeholders of Byfield, but once appointed, he could only be displaced by the Overseers of Harvard College on charges preferred against him.

The old gentleman guar- anteed the freedom of his teacher pretty well against inter- ference by the committee! The school was promptly built, the parish committee ap- pointed Samuel Moody master, and his brother manager of the farm. For twenty years the school ran with brilliant success. When it became necessary to make changes, the weakness of the plan became evident. Chauncey alone of the trustees was still alive, the parish had had nothing to do for twenty years but had duly elected the committee of five freeholders. They did not assume it was their job to retire Master Moody and select a successor and things were beginning to slip.

It was Dr. Chauncey who made, in , the wise move of incorporating the school under a self-perpetuating board of fifteen trustees in whom the management should be vested. The Parish was astounded and started to pro- test but never seems to have gotten around to it. Such institutions are as great a benefit to the communities where they are, as to the boys who attend. Just look over the towns of Hew England and see how every community where a good school or college is located, has thrived and those where the old Academies have been allowed to wither up and die, have decayed along with their schools.

On Oct. Mather Byles pronounced the funeral oration and like most such early efforts he tried rather to humiliate the audience than to extol and eulogize the subject. That belongs to our weaker and more effeminate age. How did he retire from it, followed with the gratitude and blessings of a whole people! In the calm leisure of his recess, in what amiable and venerable lights did he shine in his domestic and amicable connections! His steady family devotions, his stated retirements to his closet, his applications to the entertaining and pious pages of vari- ous kinds, his friendly entertainments, and his works of piety and charity, filled up his useful hours.

The wise, incorrupt, and suc- cessful administration of Mr. For one hundred and eighty years, sometimes better and sometimes worse, that school has continued to serve its towrn and country and never more effectively than today. It began with twenty-eight students ; today there are Between and about boys were graduated. Its sons can be found on every bat- tlefield of the world where American troops are serving, and I believe they have imbibed those fundamental prin- ciples of liberty and justice which are the birthright of New England.

I hope that this will not be troubling you too far. John Derby Jr. London ye 6th Aug. They are packd with his articles. I hope they will please you. I thank you for your good wishes. I shall think it a great pleasure to have anything to do for you, none of your fam- ily have any occasion to make any apology for any little trouble they think I may have for I cannot call it by any such name. From the Francis H. Francis H. Lee began a collection of historical material relating to Salem in the nineteenth century.

He wrote many letters to former residents of Salem asking for their reminiscences and he received many replies which are of value to us now. These letters are the property of the Essex Institute. Upon the death of his father in , he returned to this country and began the study of law at the Harvard Law School, graduating in , and thereafter practicing in Boston from , when he retired. From , he served as Collector of the Port of Boston, by ap- pointment of President Cleveland.

For many years he was an Overseer of Harvard and served as President of many important Massachusetts organizations. His chil- dren were Leverett, Jr. George West , Mary Elizabeth Mrs. Chestnut Hill Aug. During my childhood and until I was eleven years old, the block occupied by my father and uncle Nathaniel Saltonstall was not so large as it now is.

The front door was behind a projection of the front parlor entered from the yard.

The addition of piazza and din- ing room with room over it was made in They lived together up the hill behind the bury- ing ground and had a legion of cats. How I cherish his memory! When I first en- tered the Grammar School in 9 years old he had but recently come from the country and brought with him some odd ways and expressions.

No three months vacation then. Six hours a day in school for forty- eight weeks of the year. Master Carlton had no assistant and his boys rarely failed to enter college with honor. And what a noble set of boys! The high school was on the lower floor, and the Latin Grammar School on the story above; and many a snow ball fight with varied result used to occur between the schools.

The old building still stands, I believe, on its old site, but the big school house in front of it occupies the ground where our battles were fought. The grave yard near by was always interesting, as the funeral train, march- ing sadly without carriages, to the solemn tolling of the bell entered its gates, and we boys stood silently watching the impressive ceremony of the burial of the dead.

But I have wandered too far away from Chestnut Street and must return to it. The Bancrofts then lived opposite on Essex Street in a pretty old-fashioned gambrel-roof house, once occupied by Judge Prescott, father of the historian, with a noble old elm in front, which I saw quite recently cut down while apparently in full vig- or, by some vandal to display his new shingle palace. An old, unpainted house stood on Essex Street at the end of the bakehouse yard, occupied by old blind Mr.

Francis Peabody lived in the house now owned by John H. Silsbee; his sons were among my most intimate friends, but I must not again get away from Chestnut Street. At all times the door wide open to receive the children, grand children and great-grandchildren. On Wednesday eve- nings sat down to tea my father, mother, uncles, aunts and grandchildren old and young, some at side tables.

My grandmother was a woman of extraordinary powers and varied culture. Her ingenious and original ideas have been well proved to have been in advance of her times. Cooling drinks and fresh air in cases of fever, when it was the invariable custom to keep the poor sufferer under blank- ets in closed rooms, and not a drop of cold water allowed to cool the parched throat and burning lips. Open air and plenty of it, at all times, night and day, and in all weather was to her the source of health. Many a time, if I rose early enough, have I seen her, even to the last years of her life and she lived to be nearly 90 in mid-winter, walking on the plank walks in her garden before breakfast.

I have heard her relate the story of her early life, how her father, Thomas Elkins, died in early manhood, leaving her mother sister of Capt. White who was murdered, afterwards Mrs. Greenwood with two little girls, herself and sister Mrs. Johonnot to support. She had then, as always, a craving for reading; but the Bible, Shakespeare, and Pope were the only books on the shelves, and these she devoured, go- ing to the house-top to get the last rays of daylight, their lamps being then too expensive a luxury.

These books she read by heart one might say. The stories told her grandchildren were generally taken from the Iliad or Odyssey. She, from early youth espoused the cause of the Indian, correspond- ing with John Ross, the Cherokee Chief. Her powers of conversation were very remarkable and as she presided at her table, at which sat my father and his brother Nathan- iel with my uncle Dudley L. Pickman and uncle Charles Sanders, you may readily form some idea of the character of the conversation with which the younger members of that large family circle were entertained and instructed.

There was no house in Chestnut Street on the opposite side from the corner to the West house. The West house was occupied by the family of Mr. Fred Howes. His sons, especially George, one of the purest and loveliest characters I ever knew, being play-mates and friends. This house was afterwards occupied by the Wests. I remember well, though I could not have been more than five years old, when your father came to Salem and occupied the first house in the Dodge block, next to that of David Pingree.

The spot where the double wooden house stands, built I think by Mr. Ray and Rev. Thompson, was then also a field as well as that on the opposite corner, next to the Dev- ereux house, where Mr. Sam S afford lived, now occupied by Mr. Henry Gardner. But why have I gone so far without mentioning that famous old Tory lady whose school I attended, Miss Hitty Higginson, who lived in a small gambrel-roof house on Essex Street where the Bertram house now stands. I can see her now sitting in her high straight back green chair, with high crowned pleated cap, black bowed specta- cles raised on her forehead and the rows of children on the hard benches without back sitting stiff and motionless dur- ing those long hours of school.

I never now hear the August locust sing without remembering that school and how I envied the locust which piped in her garden. How freshly it all comes back. As I revert to these pictures of life in Salem half a cen- tury and more ago the figures of interesting or peculiar people, incidents and events come crowding upon me and I know not where to stop or in what order to relate them.

The stage coaches with post-shay behind, calling at the door after an early breakfast to take my father to Boston, or with others, members of the bar to Ipswich or JNTewbury- port to attend the Circuit Court, were always a subject of interest. But one dreary morning In March, I believe , the earliest event which I distinctly remember, when I was but five years old how vividly it all comes back to me! Who was the murderer and what could have been his object?

A venerable citizen, respected and beloved, without a known enemy was found murdered and not an article taken from the house. Who that was then living can forget the Committee of Vigilance, the pro- scribed list of prominent men which was reported and be- lieved to exist? The strange denouement of the dreadful tragedy, in the father of Knapp unconsciously betraying his own son? The great time and the argument of Daniel Webster who was retained by the Commonwealth to assist the Attorney General? The White Murder is even today an exciting topic with all old Salemites. Do I say this is the first thing I re- member?

I am wrong; for the figure of old Dr. Holyoke, the Centenarian, comes vividly before me, as he stood be- side Dr. Brazer listening to his sermon, in the high pul- pit of the Old Horth Church on North Street where, by the way, your Mother sang by the side of my father, and Master Oliver was organist. The famous waiter in those days was the negro York Morris.

Morris was very grand in blue coat and brass buttons, and while dashing around the table with one of his buttons he caught the wig of Chief Justice Parsons, switched it from his head and bore it off all unconscious of the fact that it dangled from his coat. My good old grandfather Sanders drove about in an old brown square top chaise, with a venerable gray horse named Solo- mon. My first essay at driving alone was to go to the poor house farm on the neck, for a jar of cream which was placed in a tin pail in the bottom of the old chaise. With what en- thusiasm he used to call my attention to the beautiful val- ley of the Merrimac, as we came in sight of it over Brad- ford hills and to the old home of his youth and his ances- tors!

He always said that Haverhill was the most beautifully situated town in Hew England. Then it was a village and not spoiled by shoe factories. Papanti came to Salem after I had taken a course of lessons in the Terp- sichorean art of Mr. Guyin in Concert Hall in Lafayette Street. Papanti taught three generations, I believe, not only to dance but to move and conduct themselves with grace and propriety.

How many scenes come up before me at the thought of dear old Hamilton Hall where he taught, extending all the way from that time, with the dear young faces of girls and boys so fresh and full of glee, through College days, with assemblies and other festivities, to the last time I sat there, eight years ago, at that interest- ing and beautiful banquet, the Endicott festival, when I saw, gray with years, so many of those with whom I had danced when a boy in that same hall.

But to return. The sports and pastimes of my boyhood were extremely simple. On Wednesday and Saturday half holidays, we boys were very fond of going into the town pastures with baskets of simple food. We cut the small cedar trees, made fires, cooked our potatoes and eggs in the ashes, went into the swamps and cut hockeys, ate our feast and returned tired as we were happy. The same pastures were our coasting ground in winter.

The wharves, with their vessels from India, the Pacific, from Borneo, Java, Manilla and from Africa, furnished us with great enter- tainment. He was considered an accomplished swimmer who did it. We were more of us riders and made excur- sions to the Burley Farm, the Peabody farm, the Brook- house farm, to Middleton, to the beaches, where a few old farmers and fishermen lived, but not a single sea-side resi- dence existed, who could believe it now?

We feared to enter Marblehead though it was so near, for it was said that Marbleheaders always stoned a stranger. But I am extending this letter to an unconscionable length and must draw it to a close, not however without mention- ing a few of the originals who ought to be immortalized. I like to think of these grand old men who walked the street in their knee breeches and silk stockings, powdered hair and queue; most notably old Captain West. What a stately figure and courtly manner!

I remember the amuse- ment of the young ladies when I was a small boy, at a re- mark made by his grandson William West, who was a great beau, and was walking with them behind the old gentle- man. How much more there is to relate, if I allow myself to soar as one af- ter another the memories of my boyhood come to my mind. The Negro colony on the turnpike remnants of the old slaves, they were said to be the little shops on Essex Street, Miss Wallace and Miss Ropes on the corner of Munroe Street, and the old woman who sold blackjacks and gibraltars whose name I forget.

But I must close this long rambling letter, though it is hard to stop the stream which you have tempted me to set going. You may cut and slash at it ad libitum. Sincerely yours, Leverett Saltonstall. He came to America, settling first at Newport, R. The family owned large tracts of land in various parts of Rhode Island and Massa- chusetts and gave lots for many churches. Pigot was or- dained about , settled at Stratford, Conn. He was a man of considerable literary ability, and distinguished him- self honorably in a controversy with the Rev.

Barnard had pro- voked by an attack upon the ancient practice of the church. During the epidemic of throat distemper in , his fam- ily was sadly afflicted, and he wrote in to the Ven- erable- Society that he went to Providence to supply, which was a great distance from Marblehead, having procured Rev.

Watts to take his church services. It is doubtful if Mrs. Pigot accompanied him, but if she did it is said that she returned to Marblehead, because in , she sold her house and land and in , died and was buried in St. In , he left Salem, and with a comfortable fortune already in pocket, accepted from his cousin, Lord Fairfax of Greenway Court, the agency of his Virginian property.

Ultimately, he built a handsome house on the south bank of the Potomac near Alexandria, calling it Belvoir. This dwelling was burnt soon after the Revolution. Belvoir was a stately mansion in its day, and when fitted up with English furniture and plate and pictures, the stables filled with well bred horses and English equipages and harness, soon became the center of neighboring hospitality.

Many of the Colonists saw there, for the first time, the combined comfort and ele- gance of an English home. The liveried lackeys, wax-lights, fine wines, and carpets made a ripple of talk among the gos- sips. To view them, came squires in periwigs and with dames in cardinals, on horseback, the ladies, often as not, mounted on pillions behind their lords. Darkeys on mules, carrying saddle-bags and bandboxes, brought up the rear of the cor- tege — a mode of progress that had not become obsolete in Virginia neighborhoods when the war between the States began. William Fairfax was a gentlman of very fine accomplishments, and general good character.

He was a kind husband and indulgent parent, a faithful friend, a sincere Christian; and was eminently distinguished for his private and public virtues. Fairfax was friend and counsellor. Ameri- cans owe something to the man from whose lips the Father of our Country learned the principles bequeathed by the Old 68 st. Among the Touzel papers in the Essex Institute are many letters from Jersey relatives, especially after the death of John.

I hear that Mr. Jean Tousell has well and faithfully exercised the charge of Master of the school in said parish, for which we are given this present certificate to serve him at all times where Providence may conduct him, made the 24th day of January, William Hathorne; and Susannah, who mar- ried John Hathorne. These children gave letter of attorney to John Ahier of Jersey to take charge of the estate which belonged to them in Jersey.

Touzel was a master mariner, sailing on the sloop Endeavour, owned by Samuel Browne, Esq. In he was at Bilbao. He brought many relatives and friends to this country on various voyages. Joseph Aubin, uncle of John, Jr. Inventory of his estate, dated Jan. Hall: bed, bedding, trundle bed, doz. Hall chamber : bed furnishings, low chest of drawers, sealskin and leather trunks, 1 doz. Shop : tools of all description. Shop chamber: old sea quilt, wear- ing apparel, walking cane, chairs, pictures, Province Law book and others, linen and table.

Counting house: 1 small desk and other things. Kitchen: pewter, brass candlesticks, fire place utensils, pots and kettles, chafing dish, copper ket- tles. Porch chamber: 6 turkey work chairs. Garret and cellar: beds etc. Farm at Wind- ham. He was associated in business there with Edward Lascelles and George Maxwell. He left Barbados for England in April, , and appears in Salem the following May, coming over for his health, it is said. Essex Docket, 22, Damask napkins, 1 small Damask tablecloth, 1 large ditto, linen tablecloth, 3 fringed diaper tablecloths, 1 pr.

Ticken Spatter Dashes, a suit of cot- ton checked curtains and head cloth, pr. John Oulton was of Marblehead in , a communicant at King's Chapel as early as , and one of the committee to build St. Michael's Church in , and later warden. He was a warden and vestryman at King's Chapel, He was again in Marblehead from to He was one of the proponents of the first bank in Boston, in , with Samuel Lynde, E.

Paul Dudley opposed the bank. He was associated with Thomas Palmer and Cornelius Waldo, eminent merchants of Boston, who carried on an extensive trade on land and sea, owning land in various counties in Massachusetts. He is recorded as a man of esteem and quality, and by marriage was connected with the Legg and Brown families, a generous share of whose estates came into his hands. During the hard times of the seventeen thirties, his firm lost heavily. Deborah Oulton died previous to , and he previous to Gedney Clarke has been said to have been at one time Governor of Barbados.

The following letter from E. Shil- stone, M. There were at least two persons of that name — Gedney Clarke whose will is recorded here in , and his son Gedney, Collector of Customs at Barbados, who died in Enclosed is a copy of extracts from the will of the first Gedney Clarke above mentioned. He owned property in Salem, in Barbados, Essequebo, and in various other parts of the world. The will follows : 72 st. Slaves, furniture etc.

To son Gedney Clarke and his heirs male all residue of real and personal estate both in Barbados and Grenada. Also my estate called Pyra? Also acres of land which I have lately agreed with Samuel Carter for, adjoining to the said plantation Vriendschap. Also a wharf and ware- houses, with hereditaments in Salem, Hew England, which my brother John Clarke sold to me many years ago. Also house and land in Halifax now in possession of Mr. Shipton and also all the rest of land, buildings, etc. In case of fail- ure of the entail, the same to my son Peter Clarke in tail male, failing him to my son Francis Clarke in tail male, then to my three daughters.

Appoint my wife Mary during widowhood and sons Gedney, Peter, and Francis, to be executrix and executors. Dated 27 March Witnesses: C. Hall, R. Clement jnr. Proved and recorded 4 September Gedney Clarke, son of the above, was Collector of Customs in Barbados, an appointment under the Crown when the Ex- cise on sugar and other products was payable to the King. He lived at the Belle plantation and entertained George Wash- ington there when he visited Barbados. Senhouse was the Sur- veyor General of Customs.

Clarke taking particular care to receive every one that came with the most cordial hospital- ity, and had on that account a different set of dining company every day. Such signal and obliging attention I had never been accustomed to, but in doing this he did no more than follow the bent of his own natural inclinations ; for it was his constant practice to entertain every one that came and to keep a sort of open house for all Officers of the Navy, Army and strangers of every respectable denomination that eventually came to the Island. To effect this in the elegant style in which he constantly lived and entertained them a very con- siderable expense was necessarily and unavoidably incurred, and happy would it have been for this worthy man whose little faults hurt only himself, but whose many virtues bene- fited all within his reach had a prudent economy been adopt- ed in the room of a liberal and generous profusion, as the event will sufficiently show.

Clarke was in every re- spect a most worthy woman. They had two sons who to- gether with Miss Roberts and Miss Steele, two antiquated maidens, formed a family group of the most amiable de- scription. Clarke, Collector at Bridgetown, in The new official was very unpopular with the people and finally Mr.

Clarke was restored to office by order of the Commission- ers, on which occasion illuminations and every possible dem- onstration of joy were exhibited by the inhabitants. The second Gedney Clarke left no will. His estate was much involved. The writer thinks he is correct in saying that Gedney Clarke, Jr. The family is that of the present Earl of Harewood. The Belle plantation became the property of the Lascelles family. These stones were originally erected over graves in the Churchyard. James Price heads the department of Religion which has eleven instructors, all of whom are ordained ministers.

As chairman of the department, Dr. Price also is in charge of the one hundred and twenty-five students who have received scholarships for Christian vocations. Physical Education The English department is headed by Arlin Turner who has thirty-eight assistants on his staff. The department has re- cently instituted a new freshman program that has proven to be a success for both the students and the faculty.

The new emphasis has been placed upon individual conferences and a closer student-professor relationship. The department offers studies in the areas of English composition, speech and drama, and English and American literature and language. William H. Cartwright heads the Education department which turns out about student teachers annually. In order to provide an up-to-date and accurate program, the depart- ment contacts the public schools as to curriculum, buildings, and finances as well as contacting professional educators on methods, change and development.

The department has re- cently instituted a program whe student may obtain a Master of Arts in Teaching. Bassett, provides its students with a curriculum ar- ranged by the Naval Department. Duke is to be duly proud of the department, which is rated in the top ten of such ROTC units in the nation. Todd whose duties are to insure that the academic pro- gram presented is in accordance with the policies of Duke University and that the students are admitted and commis- sioned in accordance with the policies of the AFROTC pro- gram established by the United States Air Force.

The Physical Education department for men, headed by Thomas M. Aycock, offers various activities for students in relation to the basic physical education requirements. With the completion of the Duke Golf Course, the department ex- panded its program to include this sport. Grout, who directs the many facets of the department such as the required physical education program, the major program, and health education. Most of the majors in the department enter high school teaching or, after graduate work, teach on the college level. At The present time, the chairman of the Russian depart- ment has not been named.

Dean of the Divinity School graduate and Six graduate and professional schools currently compose the program of study available to graduate students at Duke. Several hold a nation-wide reputation for excellence in their fields. All are well equipped, both by virtue of their pro- grams and staffs, to provide the graduate student with a max- imum opportunity for scholastic achievement in his chosen area of study.

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, directed by Dean Marcus Hobbs, comprises the largest number of stu- dents in the graduate program. During the current academic year, students worked toward the M. With a few exceptions, these departments cover most of the fields of study found on the undergraduate level. Requirements for the Master of Arts degree from the school include a minimum of a year and a summer, or a maximum of two years of study.

To re- ceive the Ph. Eighty per cent of the School's student body is male, while the current feminine twenty per cent shows a continued ten- dency to increase. Interesting to note is the fact that the modern tendency toward marriage while in school is reflected here, thirty per cent of the student body holding that status. By way of contrast, the School of Forestry, with 61 stu- dents, is the smallest of the graduate and professional schools. Two types of degrees are offered — that of Master of Forestry, requiring one year of study beyond the under- graduate level, and that of Doctor of Forestry, necessitating a three year program of study.

Facilities for advanced study in plant physiology, anatomy, taxonomy, ecology, and pa- thology; genetics; and several branches of zoology are avail- able. Included among the special advantages of the School are the Duke Forest, the Arboretum, the School of Forestry Library, and various greenhouses and nurseries. Ellwood S. Harrar is Dean of the School for his second year. The School of Law, established in , prepares its stu- dents for the practice of law in any state. One hundred and fifty persons currently compose its student body.

The most common type of degree conferred by the Law School is the L. An additional year of work may lead to the attainment of the L. The highest honor conferred by the School is that of Doctor of Judicial Science, which necessitates comple- tion of the Masters Degree with distinction and the subse- quent Dublication of an acceptable piece of research. Practical training is an important part of the School's pro- gram of study. Legal research and writing courses and moot court work in the first and second years are followed in the third by seminar courses emphasizing legal planning and drafting.

The Legal Aid Clinic supplements textbook in- struction by bringing students into contact with actual cli- ents who qualify for free legal aid. Elvin R. Latty, previously associated with the School as Acting Dean, this year permanently assumed the position of Dean of the School of Law. The School of Nursing, under the direction of Dean Ann Jacobansky, is composed predominantly of undergraduate 30 professional schools nurses. Of the students in the school, only nine are in- volved in graduate work. Four years of study on the under- graduate level leads to the Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing, and, with an additional year of graduate work, the student may obtain a Master of Science degree.

In addition to their classroom education, the nurses gain practical experience through their work at Duke Hospital, the Durham Health Department, and the North Carolina Cere- bral Palsy Hospital. Service to the Durham community is ren- dered through public health nursing. Its location in the same building with Duke Hospital is symbolic of the correlation between classroom study and actual work in the wards, laboratories, and operating rooms of the Hospital. The average enrollment of the School is 3 I 5 students, 76 being admitted to the freshman class each year.

Roughly twenty five per cent of that student body completed their undergraduate studies at Duke. Three types of degrees are among the most common con- ferred by the School. The degree of Doctor of Medicine is obtained upon the completion of four years of study within the School and two succeeding years of hospital or laboratory work.

The Bachelor of Science Degree in Medicine is granted to those students who have completed two years of study and who have engaged in and reported upon creditable in- vestigative work. A twenty-one months course in the School of Medicine is required for the degree of Bachelor of Sci- ence in Medical Technology. Specialization is one of the outstanding traits of modern medicine, and the interests of Duke's medical students are indicative of this trend.

General Surgery is currently the most popular field of concentration among graduates of the School of Medicine, while internal medicine, pediatrics, psychiatry, and various surgical and medical specialties represent other fields of interest. Wilburt C. Davison, Dean of the School of Medicine, has held that position for more than thirty years.

The Divinity School ranks among the top ten theological schools in the nation. From an enrollment of some thirty stu- dents during , the first academic year of the School, it has expanded to include a present student body of ap- proximately Contrary to popular belief, the School is not designed solely for those planning to enter the Meth- odist ministry. Both faculty and students are drawn from all Protestant denominations, including diverse groups such as Baptists, Methodists, Congregationalists, Disciples of Christ, and Episcopalians.

Only ten per cent of the Divinity students are Duke graduates; the bulk of the remainder come from colleges and universities in the southeast, southwest, middle west, and North Atlantic states. The degree of Bachelor of Divinity is granted to a studen after ninety successful semester hours of study in prescribed and elective courses and upon the demonstration of a de tailed knowledge of certain portions of the Bible.

The Mas. The appointment of Robert Cushman as Dean of the Di- vinity School became effective in the fall of this year upon the retirement of Dr. James Cannon. Dean Cushman's prior connection with the School was in the capacity of Professor of Systematic Theology, a position he has held since Sc, LL. Dean of the School of Forestry the james b. Duke Professorships named in honor of the University's principal benefactor and founder of the endowment fund.

The professorships are designed to at- tract and develop within the University faculties a group of outstanding professors, and since their establishment, 19 such appointments have been made. Two of the professors, Dr. Charles F. Sydnor and Dr. Frederick London, have since died; and two, Dr. Wolf and Dr. Paul F. Baum, have retired. Paul J. In addition to teaching, he conducts research in this field. Another of his duties is the direction and supervision of the Sarah P.

Duke Gardens. Bird study and color photography occupy his spare time. He has written several works in the field of government and received both the Guggenheim and Ful- bright awards. Having made a number of visits to Europe, he has conducted a study of the fascist governments of Germany and Italy. As a hobby, he cultivates roses.

Joseph J. In this position he fills both teaching and research duties. He counts literature, the theater, bridge, and bil- liards among his special interest. He has written many articles and books on economic theory and related subjects, and has participated in studies of economic problems for the U. Malcolm Carroll, Professor of History, is the author of books on the diplomatic history of France and Germany. Among his honors he has received the Guggenheim Me- morial Fellowship. He has traveled extensively in Europe.

Carroll plans to retire in September. Professor of Economics the School of Medicine, fulfilling both teaching and admin- istrative tasks. He is consultant to the U. Davison is the author of articles which have appeared in med- ical journals. He is also a member of the National Research Council, and is past vice-chairman.

Walter Gordy received his James B. Duke Professorship this year. As Professor of Physics, he conducts both research and teaching. The director of the Microwave and Radiofrequency Laboratory, he lists atoms and molecules as his special interest. He also has con- ducted extensive research in the field of microwave spectro- scopy. He has been a lecturer at several nuclear research conferences. David T.

In addition to teaching and re- E. Hs is an hon- orary member of Phi Beta Kappa. Walter J. Seeley, Professor of Electrical Engineering, is now the Dean of the College of Engineering, where he fulfills administrative duties. As a hobby he enjoys working with Stereo pho- tography and collecting stories about lightning. James T. Cleland is Professor of Preaching and Dean of the Chapel. He has published both books and articles on the subject of preaching and has conducted lectures at various seminaries, the most recent being the Thomas W.

Currie Lec- tures at Austin Presbyterian Seminary in He states his special interest as people. One of the most recent honors he has received is election as Presi- dent of the American Theological Society. He is a pioneer in his field, having held the first chair of its kind in an American Theological Society. His research in the field of polio has been ex- tensive. The making of medical teaching films is one of his special interests. Professor of English 34 the james b. He has received the honor of becoming a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.

Calvin B. He has written books on Germany, Soviet Russia, and economic subjects, and has been economic ad- viser to the government. A Phi Beta Kappa, he likes gardening and classical his- tory. Charles L. Lowndes, Professor of Law, is a specialist in the field of taxation law. He has written numerous articles on both Federal and State taxes which have appeared in vari- ous legal periodicals. He has had experience in active law practice with Masten and Nichols, New York, and has been at Duke since Walter M. He received the Navy's Distin- guished Civilian Award in for research during the war.

He also worked on university research staff training at Oak Ridge. Cosmic ray research is his special field. From the moment a student withdraws from the University, he becomes a member of an ever-growing family of alumni. His contact with and interest in the further development of his Alma Mater is maintained through a compre- hensive series of activities. Most prominent among these are the class reunions held on such annual occasions as Homecoming, Founder's Day, Alumni Day, and Commencement. Both the quarterly Alumni Newsletter and the Alumni Regis- ter, published ten times yearly, are further important links between the Uni- versity and its former students.

The Loyalty Fund offers interested persons the opportunity to -ontribute financially to Duke's continuing growth. For the first time, graduates of the Medical School and the Law School held regular class reunions. An enlargement of the Alumni Affairs staff and the transferal of Roger Marshall from the position of Assistant to the Director to that of Alumni Secretary enabled the Department to undertake more extensive projects.

Charles Dukes, as Director of the Department, coordinates University life with the activities of eighty local alumni associations throughout the United States and abroad. Regarded as companions and advisors, many of these women possess professional training in counsel- ing and guidance. Some are themselves graduate students, working toward higher scholastic degrees. An Lnusually high turnover in counselorships resulted in the addition of six new women to the Woman's College in this capacity at the start of the academic year.

She succeeded Miss Carolyn Herman. Other new additions in included Mrs. Librarian Representing the largest collection of books and manuscripts in the South and the thirteenth largest among university libraries in the nation, the Duke Libraries are right- fully a source of pride and a vital part of the life of every member of the University community.

In addition to the General Library on West Campus and to the Woman's College Library, seven specialized collections of writings complete the assemblage. Each of these is under the supervision of a chief libraran and, with the exception of the libraries of the law and medical schools, all are under the centralized direction of Dr.

Benjamin Powell, Head Librarian. Approximately 1,, catalogued volumes and 2,, manuscripts and maps currently compose the Library collection of the University. These totals represent a long history of accumulation. Since the University's incorporation in , the Libraries have received special emphasis, even during the lean days of Depression and often at the expense of other University needs. Most of the buying is done on request from faculty members and after ex- tensive review of available purchases.

Some five thousand books also come to the Libraries annually at the bequest of friends of the University. To the books, manuscripts, and maps available to the student as resource materials may be added microfilm reels, recordings of speeches, etc. Among the fields of study in which Duke's collection of written works is particularly eminent are zoology; botany; chemistry; medicine; mathe- matics; physics; English and American literature; law; religion; English, French, Amer- ican, and Southern history; political science; and economics. A number of special collections of literature, some of world-wide fame, add a dis- tinguished note of quality to the quantity of Library possessions.

Also found in the Rare Book Room is an assortment of ancient Biblical manuscripts, dating from the ninth through the fifteenth centuries, and consisting chiefly of texts from the New Testament. He is currently serving as vice-president of the American Library Association and is president-elect of that organization for There are honors for service to the Uni- versity, honors in athletics, honors in military training programs, honors for all-round ability in scholastic and extracurricular fields, honors for proficiency in specific subjects, and sixty honors for top grades, all of which stay with and help that honored student throughout life.

The first honor which comes to mind when thinking along the scholastic line, is that of Phi Beta Kappa, the oldest Greek letter organization This honorary was originally organized to cultivate friendship and the appreciation of literature, but now it holds the meaning of excellence in grades, and is the most coveted award offered to college stu- dents.

Phi Beta Kappa also works for the student after graduation. Sometimes this key serves to unlock the door to graduate schools in law, medicine, business, academic, and other graduate fields. Or it may hold the power to open up job opportunities for the student, especially in fields where a high degree of knowledge is necessary or where only the top persons in that field are selected.

Another of the highly praised honors, awarded to students in their Senior year, is Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities. This is a recognition of excellence in academic and extracurricular activities, and is also a national honor. Students who are honored in this way find themselves listed in the annual book titled "Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities", with a condensed write-up containing the name of their college or university, followed by other honors received there.

As Phi Beta Kappa, Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities serves as a key to open the door to graduate and professional schools, as well as aid the student in gaining desirable jobs. Duke also offers two sophomore service honoraries, Beta Omega Sigma for the men of West, and Sandals for the women on East. Sophomores are honored, too, for scholas- tic achievement during their Freshman year, with two groups— Phi Eta Sigma on West, and Ivy of East.

Seven women and seven men, all seniors, are chosen for one of Duke's highest leader- ship distinctions in solemn tapping ceremonies. The women are selected for Whito Duchy, the men, for Red Friars. Santa Filomena, which recognizes seven senior nursing students, and Old Trinity Club, which honors men on West, are along the same line, all four being secret societies. Joan Knowles Langley Mrs. Tapped for membership are those students having high standards of scholarship, leadership, and character and having given service to the Univer- sity.

The purpose of the Rho Circle of Omicron Delta Kappa is three-fold: First, to recognize men who have distinguished themselves in campus activities and to inspire others to strive for similar attainments; second, to bring together thfi' most representative men in all phases of collegiate life; and third, to unite the members of the faculty and student body of the institution on a basis of mutual interest and understanding. Austin C. Leland Bassett Robert C.

Beaty Richard W. Bevis David I. Blanchard R. Wiley Bourne Linton F. Brooks Fred O. Brownson Thomas A. Calhoun Craig D. Choate Charles B. Duke Donald K. Fry Jr. Robert O. Gamble Dr. Hamilton Steven L. Hammer Linwood B. Hollowell Julian Juergensmeyer Richard A. MacEwen Michael T. Malone Russell A. Phillips David M. Sims Charles A. Thompson C. Joseph Wine Richard J. Wood Winter Wright Charles R. At midnight of December 9, fifteen charter members were tapped into newly or- ganized Phi Kappa Delta. Its purpose is to recognize women of outstanding achievement and to represent all phases of college activity.

Phi Kappa Delta sponsors supper meetings with faculty members to discuss campus problems on an informal basis. In addition, guest speakers to discuss vocational opportunities are sponsored jointly with the senior class. The fraternity strives to promote wholesome student participa- tion in campus activities and to encourage freshmen to develop and exercise leadership. In view of these aims, Beta Omega Sigma activities this past year included assisting the Y.

In addition, Beta Omega Sigma sponsors, primarily for the freshmen, an annual dance with the Sandals. Mem- bers are tapped each spring for this honorary fraternity. Arrington Walter B. Evans Robert A. Garda Robert Beard Claude T. Moorman David M. Sanford Thomas R. Atkins Burt S. Foster, Jr. Rice, Jr. Lee F. Soybort Richard A. Tripper, Jr. Twenty members are chosen each spring on the basis of out- standing leadership, scholarship, and service. An auxiliary of W.

The members conduct tours of East Campus for prospective students and assist in planning and carrying out Orientation Week's program. Other small but valuable services for the University are performed, such as taking roll in assem- blies and conducting campus elections. In the fall, Sandals sponsor a dance with their counterpart organization, Beta Omega Sigma.

Membership is extended to all freshmen who attain a 3. Functioning as an active organization, the members during their sophomore year sponsor several projects designed to aid and encourage other students. This year the scholastic honorary began its activity by writing letters to incoming freshmen concerning studying in college. For freshmen who en- countered great difficulties with their work, the members served as tutors in subjects for which they were well qualified.

At mid-semester, Phi Eta Sigma held a dinner for all freshmen who had earned at least a B average. The members also graded the traditions tests taken by all freshmen and participated in freshmen assemblies. Alpern John E. Knodel Everrette V. Snotherly, Myron O. Lounsbury John D. McCurdy Charles B. Walls William R. Scott Wallace V. Kaufman Mark 6. Edwards John E. The members who become actives in their sophomore year must have attained an average of 3. Ivy was instituted as a local scholastic honorary society with Mrs. Persons as the first advisor.

Ivy endeavors to keep freshman average from being submerged in the deluge of social life and extra- curricular activities. It has strived to encourage better scholarship and to stimu- late intellectual curiosity among freshman women. Activities throughout the year include supplying free tutors, marshalling at several Woman's College functions and donating books to the Woman's Col- lege Library. In November a dinner is given for all freshman women with a "B" average or better.

Members of Ivy are inducted both in the fall and the spring by a tapping ceremony during a special awards assembly. This is a directory designed to give national recognition to students having been of outstanding service to their school. This year fifty-two campus leaders from the senior class were chosen to be included. Mention on this list implies capacity for future success; therefore, Who's Who maintains a student placement service which provides opportunities for members to make important contacts in the business world.

Prospective members must have maintained an overall "B" average in addition to a "B" average in all Spanish courses and must, of course, have an interest in Spanish language and culture. This chapter, Alpha Theta, was established at Duke in Its purpose is to promote better relations between Spanish and English speaking countries, to stimulate a deeper appreciation for Spanish contributions to culture, and to learn about opportunities for travel and employment in con- nection with this language.

They also endeavor to reward those of their mem- bers who show specical attainments and interest in the study of Spanish. The group under the guidance of their sponsor, Senor Juan R. Castellano, meets monthly for meetings and lectures and also sponsors an initiation banquet and a. Initiation for new members is usually held in the latter part of November.

From right to left: row I: Mr. Van L. Schneider, C. Robbins, D. Br, , V. Sifritt, C. Row 3: J. Staley, L. Ja ght, Row I: Mr. Jens Broders ey. Row 2: B. Stephens, D. Wood, jbson. Foote, H. Buxch, P. Row 4: R. Allen, S. Lindsay, H. Drawbaugh, R. Deschle M. Branton, S. Boone, A. Early, J.

Row 5: M. Its purpose is to recognize excellence in the study of German and to provide an incentive for higher scholarship. Delta Phi Alpha also promotes the study of the German language, literature, and civilization. Only German is spoken at the club meetings. This year the fraternity estab- lished a Stammtisch in the East Campus Union and invited Germans on the campus to an evening of deutsche Lieder.

To qualify for membership in this honorary, a person must have a "B" average through his third year of Ger- man, an overall "C" average, and an interest in German culture. The spon- sors of Delta Phi Alpha are Dr. Herman Salinger and Dr. Wolfgang Taraba. Graham Home is the president. The fraternity usually meets about six times a year with the Duke and Carolina chapters sometimes meeting together for dinner and an evening of fun at the Rathskeller in Chapel Hill.

Speakers and German films heighten interest in the meetings. Now, as the time of its founding, the purpose of the society is to stimulate the interest of the mem- bers not only in the French language but also in the culture of the French people. This purpose is accomplished through group conversations, lectures, open houses, and attendance at motion pictures which have the dialogue in French. Eligibility in Tau Psi Omega comes through earning a "B" average in French, and acquiring an interest in the culture of the French. The ability to speak the language fluently is another of the society's requirements.

This year, as has been the custom in former years, society members presented a French play. New members of Tau Psi Omega were entertained by the old members at an initiation dinner. Weekly dinner meetings were held in the East Campus Union, and occasional meetings were held for the members at the Rathskellar in Chapel Hill. Walton, H.

Patterson, Z. Barutcuoglu, E. Holman, G. Huve, N. Knight, G. Maclvor, C. Hodgekins, G. The club is a relatively young organization which is striving to gain a solid, influential status of permanent recognition on the Duke University Campus. Its purpose is to pro- vide a club for lettermen which enables them to engage in social and school activities, as well as to aid charity, as a group representing the athletes of Duke University. The club had a full year, including in their planned activities the election of a Dixie Classics Queen, the sponsorship of both Blue-White games, sponsorship of either a Heart Fund or Cancer Fund Drive, and two or three banquets.

To become a member of the Var- sity D Club it is necessary to earn a letter in any sport and to pay yearly dues. The club was led this year by Bob Laverty, president. Wetzler, D. Fisher, F. Hurd, J. Linden, M Atkins B. Soule, B. Dudley, row 2: D. Katz, J. Smith, J. Girand, B. Laverty, President; T. Henaker, B. Schaaf, R. Davidson, J. Booker, row 3: E. Elsey, G. Dickinson, C. Jack, B. Posthumus, B. To answer the demands for better organization of athletic activities, a group of girls began the fraternity to give recognition to those who had excelled in women's sports.

Since that date, Delta Phi Rho Alpha has strived to build up interest in sports and recreational activities on the Women's campus and to promote participation in intramurals. Rising juniors and seniors who have demonstrated outstanding interest and skill in at least two sports are eligible for membership; usually seven are selected each spring. A special as- sembly is held for the tapping.

The members are encouraged to take a leading role in sports and to exhibit good sportsmanship at all times. Instead of holding meetings, Delta Phi Rho Alpha suggests that members spend some time each week to further athletics. Each year the fraternity awards a gold key to the senior girl who has done the most to actively promote athletic participation. Austin, Swofford. The society's membership requirements include an overall "C" average, dem- onstration of outstanding military leadership, and a high degree of interest in the AFROTC unit and its objectives.

The William A. This year many service projects have been carried out as well as several social functions, including the Military Ball. This society was organized to fulfill the need for an NROTC honorary fraternity; the Corsairs is the first organization of its kind. Its purpose is threefold: to rec- ognize the outstanding NROTC students, to promote esprit de corps among the midshipmen of the Naval battalion, and to increase interest in the Navy within the University Community. The first initiation for the Corsairs was held in January of and since that time the membership has increased to thirty members.

Midshipmen must dis- play outstanding Naval aptitude to be eligible for membership. In addition, a "B" average in Naval Science and an overall "C" average must be maintained. Only Juniors and Seniors are considered for the honorary. Meetings of the Corsairs are held monthly and programs of special interest to the midshipmen are presented.

Many feature Naval officers as speakers. In the future the Corsairs hope to strengthen their own bonds and eventually to expand into a national Naval honorary society. Kinq, L. Fry R. Ashley, R. MacEwen, G. Hugg rd. Cornwell, L. Brooks, Stephens, D. Edgar, B. It endeavors to promote a better stu- dent-faculty relationship and to supplement the student's formal education through research projects and professional programs. To qualify for member- ship a student must major in the business field, express a firm desire to become a member of Alpha Kappa Psi, and maintain a "C" average.

A resume of this year's activities includes a talk by Mr. Irving of a brokerage firm in Durham on investment clubs throughout the country, a speech on insurance by Dr. Saville of the business department, dinner meetings at the Castle, a visit to the Fed- eral Reserve Bank and the Dupont Company in Richmond, and the formal dance held in the spring. A scholarship key and a certificate are awarded each spring to the senior with a business major who has maintained the highest average for three years, and a civil award is presented to the outstanding member of the fraternity each year.

Landon, H. Reese, D. Flynn, J. Farl K Walz T. McCormick, E. Steel, J.

Paperback Editions

Merritt, J. Preston, B. Cher D. Frederldng, M. Wittenstein, J. Doser, A. Kreps, N. Yarger; row 4: D. Tr Custer, I. Miralia, R. Lipman order of st.

Patrick, R. MacEw B. Gamble, C. Yengst, T. Smith— Worthy Keeper of the Exchequer, R. Beaty— -Worthy Councilar. Edwards, T. Taylor, - 3: C. Wine, L. Girand, J. The society was organ- ized with these obiectives in mind: to recognize those men who have attained a high standard of character and leadership in engineering activities, to pro- mote good fellowship and understanding among its members and to stimulate interest and participation in engineering activities.

Junior and Senior engineering students are eligible for membership in the Order. Scholastic eligibility stems from a point system and on this basis, along with qualifying standards of leadership and character, students are tapped into the Order of Saint Patrick. Initiation takes place both in the fall and spring. Meetings are he'd monthly and a pledge banquet is held twice a year. The Order of Saint Patrick with Tau Beta Pi also jointly sponsors silde rule lectures for new engineering and math students.

In the Duke chapter, students in the top twelve percent of the junior class and the highest twenty-five percent of the senior class are eligible for membership. In addition, three honor students are selected for membership the first semester of their junior year. Tau Beta Pi was founded on the principle that students who have conferred honor upon their Alma Mater by distinguished scholarship and exemplary character as undergraduates in engineering should be fittingly rewarded. Dual-purposed, the honorary also strives to foster a spirit of liberal culture in the engineering col- leges of America.

Tau Beta Pi holds meetings once a month, and for the benefit of new engineers and other persons interested, the honorary sponsors annual lectures on correct silde rule procedure. Members are tapped for Tau Beta Pi in the fall and spring and, on each occasion, they are honored bv an initia- tion banquet.

Both in the fall and spring, they sponsor an initiation banquet. Members of Pi Tau Sigma are chosen from the top fourth of the junior class and the top third of the senior class on the basis of scholastic achievement, character, citizenship, and professional interest. President William J. McAnally, III, oresides at the meetings which are held once a month. Beaty, Robert kappa kappa psi Kappa Kappa Psi is the national music honorary. The local Duke chapter was founded in and existed until After a brief period of inactivity, the present club in the past two years has grown once again into a strong chapter.

To recognize outstanding musicians and band members is the purpose of Kappa Kappa Psi. Members of any of the several University musical groups are eligible to join the honorary. As one of its activities the fraternity plays host to bands of visiting football teams, often furnishing refreshments after the games.

Each year the honorary sends several band mem- bers to participate in the National Intercollegiate Band, a group composed of outstanding band members from all over the country and featuring a well-known guest conductor. Kappa Kappa Psi holds meetings twice monthly, sponsoring, in addition, a banquet in the spring for its members.

Under the capable direction of its ad- visor, Dr. Paul Bryan, the honorary has enjoyed a highly successful year. Taylor, B. Baylis, T. Wallace, C. Wolfson, D. Hofler, B. Hurry, J. Row 2: T. Vernon, B. Barrier, T. Strickland, C. Overley, E. Mesta, M. Row 3: B. Campbell, L. Crews, B. Penny, D. McConnell, G. Sowder, H. Hester, Dr. Bryan, advisor. On May 14th, , the second chapter of this national hon- orary was founded here on the Duke Campus. Since that time, Sigma Pi Sigma has functioned on campus to promote the study of physics and mathematics.

The several purposes of the honorary fraternity are: to recognize superior scholarship in physics, to strengthen association among those who are interested in this science, and to en- courage and stimulate all scientific work. Requirements for membership demand that candidates have a B average in math or physics at the end of their sophomore year. The program this year included, in addition to monthly meetings, a trip to the National Bureau of Standards. The society also sponsored public lectures. To recognize achievement in Psychology and to stimulate interest in the field by lectures, projects, seminars and social functions are the principle goals of Psi Chi Delta, the Psychology Honorary of Duke.

Founded in April, , it was intended as a bi-partite "Psychology Club," open to anyone interested in Psychology and a select "Psychology Honorary," open to majors in that area who could meet certain scholastic criteria. Reorganization in September , however, resulted 'n its present status as an honorary, with only a selected as- sociate membership. The varied program of functions this year sponsored by Phi Chi Delta is indicative ot its wide scope of activity.

Typical of the numerous lectures for its membership, which are open to the public, was that of Dr. Edward Jones, Dr. Spell burger, Dr. Founded at Duke in , this chap- ter had the distinction of being the first one of its kind in North Carolina. It is open to students in the College of Engineering or students with majors in the departments of chemistry, mathematics, and physics.

Betty Neels

In order to qualify for election to membership, a person must have an overall "B" average and a "B" average in math through Math 52, which is the second semester of calculus. Last year Pi Mu Epsiion had two meetings, both for the initiation of new mem- bers. In November a speaker from the Employment Bureau discussed oppor- tunities for both permanent and summer jobs for those interested in math. The group heard a talk last April about computers and their programming, and made a tour of the computer lab.

Dressel is the sponsor of Pi Mu Epsiion. Directo- of the fraternity is Carol Cleave. Jan I i are from left to riqht. True, it is meant as the tie-in between the University's academic work and the religious foundation of Duke, but it might have an additional translation read into its meaning— that of the joining of academic education with an extra-curricular education which includes groups founded upon and associated with religion and religious principles.

Duke University not only seeks to educate its students with a slate of academic courses, but through the extracurricular work done in various organizations, Duke hopes to give the students a feeling of responsibility and leadership— an education in itself. By entering into student activities, a student learns to follow or to lead, to accept respon- sibility, and to learn to do things which are not taught in the regular curriculum, such as in publications, radio, drama, and government. In the field of organizations, Duke might be compared to a small town composed of varied business concerns, religious groups, clubs, and activities.

One of the main organizations on campus is the "Y" — a religiously based activity. Along this same line are other groups which promote religious fellowship, including Chapel Choir, Kappa Chi, and the various denominational groups. Then, too, the three colleges, Trinity, Woman's, Engineering, have advisory groups to help freshmen through that overwhelming first year. Student Union centers its far-reaching attention on a life of balanced activities for the students, including student-cast shows, big name groups, recreation, culture, and educational interests.

Other groups try to keep the students informed on regulations concerning traditional dress and conduct of Duke students. Pub Row offers a yearbook, thrice-weekly newspaper, literary magazine, and a maga- zine for entertainment. There are specialized organizations, too, where students may find friends who are aiming for the same academic or professional goals. And there are groups who sing, dance, act, play musical instruments, march with music, or entertain.

Other groups debate, plan big weekends, help others, cheer for Duke, or offer the stu- dents their own radio station. There is an organization at Duke to satisfy every interest and develop every talent. The only requirement for membership is a genuine interest and willingness to work. The rewards are endless. This streamlined body, which replaced the old forty-five man legis- lature, is composed of the government association officers plus two representatives from each class.

The Student Senate functions as the supreme instrument of government in regu- lating the affairs of the men students on West Campus. In addition to its legislative powers, the Senate has the power to regulate, supervise, charter, and determine the status of all men's student campus clubs and organizations, to impeach elective and judicial officers, and to supervise all M.

The Senate is the sounding board for student opin- ions and, concerning matters of campus wide importance, may meet in joint session with the Inter-Fraternity Council, the In- dependent Dormitory Council and the Freshman Council to formulate general policies. The Senate has served, in fulfilling its duty, to "further the activities of student life, to promote a widespread interest in student affairs, and to develop a greater spirit of progressive citizenship" on the Duke campus.

Every male undergraduate student of Duke University is a member of the association and may request Senate consideration of any and all problems which he feels have significance to Duke com- munity living. By channeling ideas from a variety of sources, M. By appealing directly to the student body through the Chronicle and by confering with faculty and ad- ministration members, the group serves as the campus voice in initiating and promoting necessary improvements. Among the numerous projects undertaken by the M. Patterned after the national government, the M. The Student Senate, which meets regularly to consider matters of a campus-wide nature, is the legislative branch.

It has the power to enact rules necessary for the effective initiation of its programs. This branch, acting as a campus disciplinary organ, upholds the regulations of the University. Judges are appointed for a one year term by the incoming president with approval of two-thirds of the Senate. In these bodies are vested the powers of interpreting the Constitution and by-laws, determining the legal jurisdic- tion of subordinate councils, reviewing Senate legislation, judging and setting penalties for infractions of rules, and try- ing Association members who have been impeached.

The ex- ecutive, directed by the president who is assisted by the other elected officers, carries out the administrative duties of the organization. As expressed by president Patsy Lee, 'W.

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In these assemblies co- eds learn all important new issues and discuss any pending old business. At this time they are given an opportunity to voice their opinion for or against these issues.