My hands, ass, legs, shoulders hurt. Victoria poet Yvonne Blomer and I toured our last books together. Readers of Sugar Ride will have a similar feeling, shadowing Yvonne as she revisits a trip she took twenty years ago with her husband-to-be Rupert, cycle-touring through Vietnam and Malaysia after teaching English in Japan. Yvonne has type 1 diabetes and has to carry much of the medical supplies for their trip in addition to all her worries and doubts about the trip, then and now.
The Light Through the Trees: Reflections on Land and Farming by Luanne Armstrong
He stands beside my desk, his tail wags very slightly, his fierce collie stare fixed on my face. Yes, yes, all right. I have been in front of the computer for several hours, teaching a class of writers who live all over the world. I have lived on the prairies my whole life. I like how The Light Through the Trees looks at how the land had been used, is being used, how it is changing, how she is changed by it.
I love how she uses that hard-won knowledge to explore her identity as a writer, her ties to community, to a life lived in a small place. More often than not, I leave my flashlight behind, to let the path carry me home through the Adirondack darkness. When I first started writing Treed , this was the book I looked to as an example of what was possible. About Treed :. With intimacy and humour award-winning poet Ariel Gordon walks us through the streets of Winnipeg and into the urban forest that is, to her, the city's heart. Along the way she shares with us the lives of these urban trees, from the grackles and cankerworms of the spring, to the flush of mushrooms on stumps in the summer and through to the red-stemmed dogwood of the winter.
After grounding us in native elms and ashes, Gordon travels to BC's northern Rockies, to Banff National Park and a cattle farm in rural Manitoba, and helps us to consider what we expect of nature. Whether it is the effects of climate change on the urban forest or foraging in the city, Dutch elm disease in the trees or squirrels in the living room, Gordon delves into our relationships with the natural world with heart and style.
In the end, the essays circle back to the forest, where the weather is always better and where the reader can see how to remake even the trees that are lost. Writing the Self In Nature. Lowland areas and areas close to water transports were highly urbanized first, but as population increased along with trade and manufacturing, imperial expansion and colonization of conquered territories was needed. The environment underwent drastic degradation as pollution from the burning of fuelwood filled the air and smelters that used wood as fuel transmitted heavy metals into the atmosphere.
The creation of large cities contributed to deforestation in the classical world. Overcrowding forced citizens to move to the hillsides where forests once stood to build their homes. With an increased demand for resources and food, constant pressure was put upon the land and soil to provide food for a growing economy. Regular clearing and plowing exhausted existing soil, which eventually became infertile. Runoff and eroded soil from deforested hillsides increased the amount of silt and impeded the flow of water into agricultural areas.
Reflections on Farming
Eventually, due to the Mediterranean climate and the increased depletion of soil nutrients from hundreds of years of harvesting, yields diminished. Erosion accelerated up to twentyfold in the 3rd century, creating unusable marshlands, which spread diseases such as malaria. Flooding from runoff disrupted water supply to natural springs and rivers, but also increased siltation to coastal areas and harbors at river deltas.
Rains washed away the unprotected earth and greatly altered coastlines, in some cases, pushing them many miles farther out to sea as in the case around the mouths of the Po River. The washing away of topsoil and deposits of silt and gravel meant that harbors and ports needed to be moved, causing further burden upon the economy.
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Even in the city of Rome, floods covered the lower parts of the city and backed up the sewers. The first such flood was noted in BC; records indicate increased flooding of the river from that time onward. Clearing for agricultural needs and for heat was a necessity for long-term survival in Roman times, though there is a debate as to whether the Romans understood the implications of deforestation. Richard Grove said, "states will act to prevent environmental degradation only when their economic interests are shown to be directly threatened.
Recycling of glassware was practiced along with architectural design that utilized solar heating. Forests were also under government regulations and protected for future resources. In the 5th century BC Plato complained that "the loss of timber had denuded the hills and plains surrounding Athens and caused massive soil erosion.
Tainter argued that "deforestation did not cause the Roman collapse,"  but that one could make a case as to being a part of it. As Williams wrote, it is more likely that constant war, ravaging epidemics, rebellion, invasion from outside, a declining population, and an excessive degree of urbanization, separately or in combination, operated on the land in an empire that had extended beyond its means. In the environmental book Life Without Oil by Steve Hallett , the author argues that the collapse of the Roman Empire may have been linked to a peak wood scenario in the Mediterranean basin.
He suggests that, as wood had to be hauled from ever further away, the law of diminishing returns undermined the economic performance of Roman industry, leaving Rome vulnerable to the other, well documented problems of invasion and internal division.
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They discuss this as cautionary tale comparing it to contemporary society's potential fate under a post- peak oil scenario. Some argue that almost all of the above is based on an unhistorical projection of present concerns, onto the past. Tree crops, dates, figs, olives, chestnuts etc.
Grains were often intercultivated with these tree crops. Almost all species of trees grow again when cut down. Cutting down a wood does not, by itself, destroy woodland.
The Light Through the Trees
Coppicing is one way in which wood could be harvested on a sustainable basis for example. Hypocausts were pre-adapted to burn poor quality fuels like straw as well as coal. There is a good reason to believe that both straw and coal were important fuels in antiquity, especially in Roman Britain where coal was abundant in many areas. A great deal of protection against soil erosion arises from terracing hillsides. We do not know how extensive terraces were in antiquity but a good deal of the soil erosion here assumed to be caused by the Romans, may well date to the Dark Ages when the maintenance of terraces broke down.
Changes in tree cover may well arise from differences in climate, which are still not well understood. But there is some evidence that the decline of the Roman West is linked to climate change. Slash and burn agriculture, associated with lower populations than the Roman period, can be at least as responsible for deforestation and soil erosion as Roman agriculture. Coastal marshes can be caused by sea level changes quite as much as soil erosion. There may be reasons to believe that tree diseases as early as 6, years ago caused the elm decline but that this tree decline was related in some complex way to the practices of Neolithic farmers.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Decline of the Roman Empire. Forestry portal. The Holocene.
The "wilderness" in Roman Times. Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquities. New York: Routledge, Annual Review of Anthropology. Prometheus Books. Retrieved July 24, Early Medieval Europe.