Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer.
In Europe , the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman.
Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after Pencils were used more for drawing by ; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas.
However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects.
In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design. However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond.
An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements.
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Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use.
The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief. The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept.
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Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality.
Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design. The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability.
The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a. Time magazine puts Zaryadye Park on list of World's Greatest Places; the area of the park's facilities is 78, square meters, of which 25, square meters is occupied by a multipurpose concert hall. Plans for a new park were first raised in when the city of Moscow and its chief architect Sergey Kuznetsov organized a design competition to transform the privatized , commercial Zaryadye area into a public park.
The selected competition design sought to create a park borne of Muscovite heritage. The main feature of the park is its facilities hidden under the landscape while the park itself is divided into four climatic zones: forest, steppe and the floodplains. Another advantage of the new park is a picturesque view of the Kremlin , which visitors can enjoy from a floating bridge over the Moskva River ; the floating bridge is a thin air structure in the form of the letter "V" with a large outward extension above the water.
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It seems to hover over the Moscow River; the bridge is unique in Russia : it is a 70 meter structure without a single support. The bearing structure of the bridge is made of concrete, the decorative elements are made of metal; the deck is wooden. For the security of visitors and residents, high fences are installed so that no one can climb or jump over the sides of the bridge; the media center covers an area of square meters.
It exhibits Russian natural and architectural sights and covers various topics of the Russian history, such as the Battle of Borodino , the fire of Moscow or Council in Fili.
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In one of the pavilions of the media center, viewers are shown films about cultural monuments, protected areas and historical places of Russia. In the cinema, three rows of chairs are located on a movable platform in front of a concave screen, its shape creating a panoramic image; the only digital media hall in Russia with a cylindrical screen and an interactive image transports viewers to the times during the formation of Moscow. A stylized pavilion with an interactive exhibition tells visitors about the history of development of the Far North. For reliability in one part of the pavilion year-round a negative temperature is maintained.
For the thickness of the ice, freezing of about 70 tons of water is required. During the day, the temperature in the ice cave does not fall below minus two degrees, in the evening — below minus five; such a temperature regime was recognized by experts as optimal for an ice-free construction.
The cover of the cave itself is a natural white colour. In the ice cave, an educational site, the "Conservation Embassy", was started. Employees of national reserves and other environmental institutions are able to conduct educational programs here, as well as exchange experiences in the field of biology and ecology. In the park there is a Concert Hall with an amphitheatre ; the building under a glass dome with an organ and a stage-transformer is a multifunctional concert venue of the capital. This is a separate structure; the Philharmonic project is one of the most difficult in the park.
On the one hand, the building is "dug up" into the hill and it is possible to walk along the roof. Only the glass facade remains open; the new Philharmonic replaces the concert site of the demolished Rossiya Hotel , on the site of which the park has been built. The area of the new cultural object is 25, square meters, divided between a large hall for seats and a small hall for people; the hall is multifunctional. As the hall is mechanized, it may host not only symphonic music, but pop and jazz concerts; the Large amphitheatre adjoins to the Philharmonic and it is covered with a dome, the so-called glass bark, to protect the audience from the rain.
This is the world's largest translucent structure that keeps the warm climate under it in winter. The only wall of this unusual structure remains on the east side, where the "glass cortex" connects to the Philharmonic; the amphitheatre is a stepped landscape design descending from the hill to the stage. The spots are made of wood; the paths between the rows are become part of the drainage system. The amphitheatre organically fits into the natural landscape of the park; the large open amphitheatre in Zaryadye can accommodate spectators.
The Small amphitheatre, in which a media screen is installed, is designed for visitors; the screen is used for film screenings, concerts and other events. The design of the summer amphitheatre was developed by the winner of the competition for the project of the Zaryadie Park. To see all the beauty and breadth of Russia , to visit the Far North, to admire the Ural mountains and the Caucasus ridges, visitors to the 4D-attraction "Flight over Russia" are able to find themselves in the Far East and the Baltic Sea.
On a meter parabolic screen, viewers sitting on special dynamic platforms are shown about 30 unique natural locat. Guinness World Records Guinness World Records , known from its inception from until as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver , the book was co-founded by brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street , London in August ; the book itself holds a world record, as the best-selling copyrighted book of all time. As of the edition, it is now in its 64th year of publication, published in countries and 23 languages; the international franchise has extended beyond print to include museums.
The popularity of the franchise has resulted in Guinness World Records becoming the primary international authority on the cataloguing and verification of a huge number of world records. After missing a shot at a golden plover , he became involved in an argument over, the fastest game bird in Europe , the golden plover or the red grouse. That evening at Castlebridge House, he realized that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird. Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records, he realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful.
Beaver's idea became reality when Guinness employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, running a fact-finding agency in London; the twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness Book of Records in August A thousand copies were given away.
After the founding of The Guinness Book of Records at Fleet Street, the first page edition was bound on 27 August and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas. The following year, it launched in the US, sold 70, copies. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years. Both brothers had an encyclopedic memory. Following Ross' assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot.
Guinness Superlatives Limited was formed in to publish the first book. Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment in Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors. Competitions range from obvious ones such as Olympic weightlifting to the longest egg tossing distances, or for longest time spent playing Grand Theft Auto IV or the number of hot dogs that can be consumed in three minutes.
Besides records about competitions, it contains such facts such as the heaviest tumour, the most poisonous fungus , the longest-running soap opera and the most valuable life-insurance policy, among others. Many records relate to the youngest people to have achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world; each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness World Records database, as well as select new records, with the criteria for inclusion changing from year to year.
The retirement of Norris McWhirter from his consulting role in and the subsequent decision by Diageo Plc to sell The Guinness Book of Records brand have shifted the focus of the books from text-oriented to illustrated reference. A selection of records are curated for the book from the full archive but all existing Guinness World Records titles can be accessed by creating a login on the company's website.
Applications made by individuals for existing record categories are free of charge.
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A number of spin-off books and television series have been produced. At that time, he held records. In , an esti. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. October Click [show] for important translation instructions.
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For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 21 December BBC News. Financial Times Ltd. Categories : Hotel buildings completed in Former buildings and structures in Russia Hotels built in the Soviet Union Hotels in Moscow Defunct hotels in Russia Destroyed landmarks in Russia Buildings and structures demolished in in the Soviet Union Hotels established in establishments in Russia Demolished hotels.
Hidden categories: Articles to be expanded from October All articles to be expanded Articles needing translation from Russian Wikipedia Articles containing Russian-language text Commons category link from Wikidata Coordinates on Wikidata. Excalibur Hotel and Casino. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Its predecessor was the first permanent stone bridge in Moscow, Russia. By Apollinary Vasnetsov , The Peninsula New York hotel. The Tabard Inn, Southwark, London. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized.
Lenin , Trotsky and Kamenev celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution. Sergei Korolev , the father of the Soviet space program , shortly after his arrest during Stalin's Great Terror. A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately m. Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the s. The Home Insurance Building in Chicago , completed in , was the first steel-frame skyscraper; it was demolished in Oriel Chambers in Liverpool is the world's first glass curtain walled building.
The stone mullion s are decorative. The Wainwright Building , a story red brick office building in St. Louis, Missouri , built in They were built from to , in an elaborate combination of Russian Baroque and Gothic styles. Zaryadye is a historical district in Moscow established in 12th or 13th century within Kitai-gorod, between Varvarka Street and Moskva River. The name means "the place behind the rows", i. Demolition of Rossiya, February 3, Steven Petrosino drinking 1 litre of beer in 1. Petrosino set record times for ml, ml and 1. They later dropped all beer and alcohol records from their compendium in , and reinstated the records in Image: Vegas Vacation Excalibur.
The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area in the southern part of the U. The Las Vegas Strip looking south at night. Exterior of the Palazzo hotel. A major part of the city economy is based on tourism including gambling and ultra-luxury hotels. Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U.
Mountains west of Las Vegas in the Mojave Desert. The Las Vegas Strip looking South. Carson City Mint in Carson City. Carson City is an independent city and the capital of Nevada. Sculpture representing a steam locomotive, in Ely, Nevada. Early locomotives played an important part in Nevada's mining industry. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Depiction of Europa regina 'Queen Europe' in Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France c 15, BC.
A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of letters and parcels; provision of post office boxes; and sale of postage stamps, packaging, and stationery. The oldest functioning Post Office in the world, Sanquhar, Scotland. A health club is a place that houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise. A cardio theatre including treadmills, stationary bikes and TV displays. Two DJs perform at a club Ibiza , People dance at an industrial music event in a nightclub Athens , A movie theater, cinema, or cinema hall, also known as a picture house or the pictures, is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films for entertainment.
Rodgers Theatre in Poplar Bluff in Missouri. This Art Deco -style theater opened in The view from the projectionist's booth at Ultimate Palace Cinema in Oxford. The picture the projector is displaying is the Universal Pictures Logo. A barber is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men's and boys' hair.
Library of Alexandria destroyed by fire. Evidence is scant for all four fires, but the library was eventually destroyed. Construction of the tower began in and completed in late However, the project was put on hold when the Great Recession struck. In , Inteko sold the plot to businessman Viktor Rashniko. Look up er, Er, ER, -er, 'er, or er- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Behind the Glass was the first television reality show in Russia, where six men and women between the ages of 21 and 24 living together in a glass apartment, filmed by 26 cameras. One way mirrors allowed pedestrians to see into the bedroom, living room and bathroom.
Security guards protected the glass. Fans were charged 20 roubles to look in on the show. Former NTV producer Grigory Luibomirov, producer and director of the show, created the reality series. A group of psychologists, sociologists and doctors selected 12 people from several thousands, and then the audience selected the 6 winners. Six are considered "a reserve", in case one of the participants decides to leave before their time. He was the vice-chairman and one of the founders of the ruling United Russia party.
During Luzhkov's time, Moscow's economy improved and he presided over large construction projects in the city, including the building of a new financial district. At the same time, he was accused of corruption, bulldozing historic buildings, and poor handling of traffic, as well as the city's smog crisis during the Russian wildfires. Luzhkov married. Saint Basil's Cathedral —95 is a showcase of Muscovite Russian architecture. After the fall of Kiev, Russian architectural history continued in the principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal, Novgorod, the succeeding states of the Tsardom of Russia, the including architecture.
The great churches of Kievan Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in , were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic region. The architectural style of the Kievan state, which quickly established itself, was strongly influenced by Byzantine architecture. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly built from wood, with their simplest form known as a cell church.
Major cathedrals often featured many small domes, which has led some art historians to infer how the pagan Slavic temples may have appeared. Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod —52 , on the other hand, expressed a new style which exerted a strong influence on Ru. Female cadets on parade. The Moscow Suvorov Military School Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. Russian institutions called "academy" are post-graduate professional military schools for experienced, commissioned officers who have the equivalent of a bachelor's degree.
Upon graduation, officers receive the equivalent of a master's degree and, if trained in military leadership are appointed as battalion commanders or higher from Lt. Colonel and up. Graduates with non-command training are appointed to various staff positions equivalent to Major or Lt. This research-oriented degree is required for faculty positions in military schools and defense research institutes. Carefully selected experienced researchers in military a. He won three USSR Chess Championships in the s , , and , and was among the world's top ten players during that era.
Early life Leonid Stein was born in Kamenets-Podolsky. He was a Jewish Ukrainian who served in the Soviet Army. In both and , he tied for first place in the individual Army Championship. He achieved the national Master title for chess at the relatively late age of 24, but, as his Army titles against strong competition attest, he was likely at that strength somewhat earlier. In the following year he won the Ukrainian Championship at Kiev, winning it again in Grandmaster and Soviet Champion Ste.
It was begun but eventually was cancelled due to the credit crisis of Development The original idea for the building was proposed in Since then, the tower's planned location changed five times. However, that concept was cancelled by the mayor of Moscow, Yury Luzhkov. The model by Norman Foster won. Construction began in September , with a planned completion date of , which was later postponed to The tower would have contain.
Sheremetyevo Alexander S. Originally built as a military airbase, Sheremetyevo was converted into a civilian airport in During , the airport reported a Opened in , chronologically it became the third line. There are 24 stations on the Zamoskvoretskaya line, and it spans While most of the line is underground, there are some pockets of surface-level or above-ground track, mainly at the point where the line crosses the Moskva River. The line contains many examples of original Moscow Metro architecture, and contains arguably the most photographed station on the entire network: Mayakovskaya.
History The first stage of the line followed Moscow's busiest transport artery the Leningradsky Prospekt or as it moves into the centre the Tverskaya Street formally Gorkovskaya hence the original. He competed in the men's super heavyweight event at the Summer Olympics representing the Unified Team.
Building size was set at 40, square meters built-out area, , square meters usable floor area comparison figures for conte. While officially dismissed in by Vladimir Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov, it has been claimed that the dacha was built for the personal use of Putin, and that its construction began during his first Presidency. Detailed claims about the project, which allegedly made improper use of state resources, were made by Sergei Kolesnikov, a businessman with ties to Putin dating from his time in Saint Petersburg prior to entering Kremlin politics. Founded in or in , according to some Russian sources , the club plays in the Russian Premier League.
Zenit are the reigning champions of the Russian Premier League. The club is owned and sponsored by a Russian state-owned energy giant Gazprom. History Before Zenit Zenit's history is tightly connected with the political history of Saint Petersburg, Russia also called "Petrograd" and "Leningrad" at times in its history. In , the first officially-recorded football match in Russia was held in Saint Petersburg on Vasilievsky Island, an unofficial game between the local English team "Ostrov" and the local Russian team "Petrograd," which the English team won, 6—0.
This is a timeline of major events related to election interference that Russia is alleged to have conducted against the U. It also includes major events related to investigations into suspected inappropriate links between associates of Donald Trump and Russian officials. These events are related to, but distinct from, Russian interference in the United States elections.
Relevant individuals and organizations This is a list of individuals and organizations that have been involved in the events related to either the election interference that Russia conducted against the U. Seth Abramson estimated more than people could be listed here. Heat along with Wolfhound became one of the most expensive Russian films in Unfortunately, he finds out that his girlfriend is already married and has a child, then decides to spend the remaining time in a restaurant with his friends—an oligarch's son, Konstantin Konstantin Kryukov , a beginner actor, Artur Artur Smolyaninov , and a hip-hop artist, Timati.
When their lunch is coming to the end, it appears that no one has money to pay the bill, except Konstantin's dollars which do not accept for payment. The rapper. A computer reservation system, or central reservation system CRS , is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to air travel, hotels, car rental, or other activities. Originally designed and operated by airlines, CRSs were later extended for the use of travel agencies.
Global distribution systems GDS book and sell tickets for multiple airlines. Modern GDSs typically allow users to book hotel rooms, rental cars, airline tickets as well as other activities and tours. They also provide access to railway reservations and bus reservations in some markets, although these are not always integrated with the main system.
These are also used to relay computerized information for users in the hotel industry, making reservation and ensuring that the hotel is not overbooked. Airline reservations systems may be integrated into a larger passenger. Korean Air Lines Co. The airline's global headquarters are located in Seoul, South Korea. Korean Air was founded as Korean National Airlines in After several years of service and expansion, the airline was fully privatized in Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve cities in 44 countries, while its domestic division serves 12 destinations.
It is among the top 20 airlines in the world in terms of passengers carried and is also the top-ranked international cargo airline. Incheon International Airport serves as Korean Air's international hub. Korean Air also maintains a satellite headquarters campus at Incheon. The majority of Korean Air's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based in Seoul.
Korean Air is the parent company of Jin. On 9 October, Sobyanin was included in the list of four candidates for Mayor of Moscow, proposed to the President. October 21, the deputies of the Moscow City Duma by secret ballot 32 MPs voted favor and 2 — against approved Sobyanin as mayor for the next five years. On the same day, Vladimir Putin signed a decree on Sobyanin's resignation and the same decree appointed him acting Mayor of Moscow to hold early election. Sergey Sobyanin chose to go to the ele. The Il was one of the world's principal airliners for several decades and was widely exported.
Due to the aircraft's airframe durability, many examples achieved over 45, flight hours and the type remains operational in both military and to a lesser extent civilian capacities. The Il's successor was the long range Il jet airliner. Design and development Two Soviet aircraft shared the designation Ilyushin Il The first Il was a propeller-driven airliner of but after a year of test flights that programme was abandoned. In the early s with a need to replace older designs and increase the size of the Soviet civil transport fleet, a Soviet Council of Ministers directive was issued on 30 December to the chief designers Kuznetsov and Ivchenko to develop new turboprop engines and to Ily.
It is the seventh deepest lake in the world, the tenth largest lake in the world by volume though not in surface area , and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. Issyk-Kul means "warm lake" in the Kyrgyz language; although it is surrounded by snow-capped peaks, it never freezes. It is the second-largest mountain lake in the world behind Lake Titicaca in South America. This is a list of river cruise ships, both those in service and those that have since ceased to operate.
As some river cruise ships have operated under multiple names, all names will be listed in the "Notes" section. Notes A-Rosa Aqua This is a list of all airline codes. Historical assignments are also included for completeness. He has also had a diverse career as a solo artist. He was brought up nearby at his grandparents' house in Birkdale with h. He is one of the most popular and well-known Russian poets of the 20th century. Floyd Mayweather Jr. Judge C. Ross scored the fight —, a draw. Judge Dave Moretti had it —, and Craig Metcalfe scored it — Judge Ross retired after this fight.
Zurich Airport is its hub, Geneva Airport is a focus city.
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The airline was formed following the bankruptcy in of Swissair, Switzerland's then flag carrier. The new airline was built around what had been Swissair's regional subsidiary, Crossair. It is a member of Star Alliance and a subsidiary of the Lufthansa Group. It is a hub for Eurowings and a focus city for several more airlines. The airport has three passenger terminals and two runways and can handle wide-body aircraft up to the Airbus A