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Though there was no change in the level of intelligence, the chimpanzees had become aggressive. They then proceeded to completely remove the prefrontal lobe and again saw a change in the temperament. The chimps had become docile and submissive. Thus, implying the significance of the frontal lobe in determining temperament or behaviour.

Tame Bull (1962)

Moniz thought of performing a similar surgery on patients with mental illnesses. This was the beginning of leucotomies on patients with psychosis, which Moniz asserted, gave the desired results.

Can a Bull be Tamed?

Fulton was initially upset that a test conducted on chimpanzees had lead to surgeries on humans. Moniz was constantly in touch with him to refine the procedure and later on, Fulton became a sceptical supporter. Moniz also received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, in for his leucotomy procedure. It was made less invasive and renamed, lobotomy. By , United States alone reported of the maximum number of lobotomies performed, but by mids, lobotomy was renounced with the development of successful psychiatric medicines. Delgado was horrified at the idea of lobotomy and completely against the thought of obliterating a section of the brain.

His ideas were more in accordance with the experiments of Walter Rudolph Hess.

Jallikattu: The Sport – Gladiatorial game, or indispensable ritual?

Delgado was well known as someone who would improve technology for getting the desired result with minimum or no damages. He believed in electrical implants in the brain that would pass small currents to control the behaviour of the patient. His primitive experiments consisted of implanted electrodes with wires connecting to electronic devices. This, unfortunately was a risky procedure as it curtailed the movements of the subject, and left the brain susceptible to infections.

Delgado went on to design the stimoceiver, a small implanted electrode that was radio controlled to send electric impulses into the specific area of treatment. Delgado wanted to completely eliminate the butchering of the brain with this invention. After experimenting on animals, he extended his research to patients of schizophrenia and epilepsy, and implanted electrodes in nearly 25 such patients.

Jallikattu: 46 people injured during bull taming festival in Tamil Nadu’s Madurai

Delgado co-authored his first ever peer-reviewed paper in on the effects of electrode implantation in humans. He further designed the chemitrode , an implant that would administer a precise amount of drug straight into the desired portion of the brain. He is also credited for developing the early version of the cardiac pacemaker. Lucero had been sedated and implanted with electrodes that were remote-controlled by Delgado.

In the bullfighting ring, with the red cape in his right hand and the wireless control in his left, Delgado turned the stimulation on as soon as Lucero was a couple of metres away from him.

The result was an aggressively charging bull coming to a screeching halt. The animal lowered its tail and seemed to have lost its violence. However, when Delgado stopped the stimulus after exiting the ring, the bull went on to ram the enclosure.

5 reasons why you can’t keep the bulls tamed on D-Street for long

Every time a signal was detected from that part of her brain, the computer generated a punishing stimulus to her central gray area. Delgado conjectured that this method could probably be used in humans to stop seizures and other disorders generated by signals within the brain.

Delgado was obsessed with that portion of the brain which was responsible for aggression and the area that held back the aggression. In an effort to study this, Delgado implanted a stimoceiver in a monkey that was prone to bullying. The electrode was to generate a stimulus in the caudate nucleus of the brain, which controls voluntary movements. This would send an electrical impulse to pacify the animal.

How to Tame a Bull Calf

The lever that would pacify the bully, was installed in the same cage in which the monkeys were. This enraged a group within the caste Hindu community, which then reportedly launched a violent attack on Dalit homes in the area. We complained saying we were beaten because we are lower castes.

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Because they the police also belong to the same caste as the alleged attackers , they are taking their side. We went to complain, we were beaten and kept inside the police station. One of the major criticisms against jallikattu has come from Dalit activists and politicians who have called the sport casteist, pointing out that Dalit communities have been excluded from participating in the event or discriminated against at the arena.

In , following a massive protest across Tamil Nadu, the banned bull-taming sport was legitimised through an ordinance by the Tamil Nadu government. The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, was amended for the state on the grounds that jallikattu plays a vital role in preserving and promoting the culture and tradition in large parts of the state.