Patients with diabetes should have an annual test, which measures microalbuminuria small amounts of protein in urine. This test can detect early diabetic nephropathy early kidney damage linked to diabetes. There is no current cure for chronic kidney disease. However, some therapies can help control the signs and symptoms, reduce the risk of complications, and slow the progression of the disease. Patients with chronic kidney disease typically need to take a large number of medications.
Treatments include:. Hemoglobin is the substance in red blood cells that carries vital oxygen around the body.
If hemoglobin levels are low, the patient has anemia. Some kidney disease patients with anemia will require blood transfusions. A patient with kidney disease will usually have to take iron supplements, either in the form of daily ferrous sulfate tablets, or occasionally in the form of injections. People with kidney disease may not be able to eliminate phosphate from their body properly.
Symptoms, causes, and treatment of chronic kidney disease
Patients will be advised to reduce their nutritional phosphate intake - this usually means reducing consumption of dairy products, red meat, eggs, and fish. High blood pressure is a common problem for patients with chronic kidney disease. It is important to bring the blood pressure down to protect the kidneys, and subsequently slow down the progression of the disease. If toxins build up in the body because the kidneys don't work properly, patients may feel sick nausea.
Medications such as cyclizine or metaclopramide help relieve sickness. NSAIDs , such as aspirin or ibuprofen should be avoided and only taken if a doctor recommends them. This is when the kidneys are functioning at less than percent of normal capacity. Measures used so far - diet, medications, and treatments controlling underlying causes - are no longer enough.
The kidneys of patients with end-stage kidney disease cannot keep up with the waste and fluid elimination process on their own - the patient will need dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to survive. Most doctors will try to delay the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant for as long as possible because they carry the risk of potentially serious complications. There are two main types of kidney dialysis. Each type also has subtypes. The two main types are:.
Hemodialysis : Blood is pumped out of the patient's body and goes through a dialyzer an artificial kidney. The patient undergoes hemodialysis about three times per week. Each session lasts for at least 3 hours. Experts now recognize that more frequent sessions result in a better quality of life for the patient, but modern home-use dialysis machines are making this more regular use of hemodialysis possible.
Peritoneal dialysis: The blood is filtered in the patient's own abdomen; in the peritoneal cavity which contains a vast network of tiny blood vessels. A catheter is implanted into the abdomen, into which a dialysis solution is infused and drained out for as long as is necessary to remove waste and excess fluid. The kidney donor and recipient should have the same blood type, cell-surface proteins and antibodies, in order to minimize the risk of rejection of the new kidney. Siblings or very close relatives are usually the best types of donors.
Kidneys and Urinary Tract (for Parents) - KidsHealth
If a living donor is not possible, the search will begin for a cadaver donor dead person. Following a proper diet is vital for effective kidney failure treatment. Restricting the amount of protein in the diet may help slow down the progression of the disease. Salt intake must be carefully regulated to control hypertension.
Potassium and phosphorus consumption, over time, may also need to be restricted. Patients with kidney disease typically have low levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones. The vitamin D we obtain from the sun or food has to be activated by the kidneys before the body can use it.
Patients may be given alfacalcidol, or calcitriol. People with chronic kidney disease need to be careful with their fluid intake. Most patients will be asked to restrict their fluid intake. If the kidneys do not work properly, the patient is much more susceptible to fluid build-up.
Kidneys carry out the complex system of filtration in our bodies - excess waste and fluid material are removed from the blood and excreted from the body. In most cases, kidneys can eliminate most waste materials that our body produces. However, if the blood flow to the kidneys is affected, they are not working properly because of damage or disease, or if urine outflow is obstructed, problems can occur.
In most cases, progressive kidney damage is the result of a chronic disease a long-term disease , such as:. A doctor will check for signs and ask the patient about symptoms. The following tests may also be ordered:. If the chronic kidney disease progresses to kidney failure, the following complications are possible:.
- Kidneys and Urinary Tract.
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Some conditions increase the risk of chronic kidney disease such as diabetes. Controlling the condition can significantly reduce the chances of developing kidney failure.
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Get Started — Go! What Are Kidneys? They release three important hormones: Erythropoietin pronounced eh-RITH-ro-Poyeh-tin aids in red blood cell formation Renin pronounced REE-nin maintains a normal blood pressure The active form of Vitamin D, which helps keep our bones strong.
Removes waste products and excess fluid Helps regulate electrolytes. Stage 2 eGFR Mildly reduced kidney function, and other findings as for stage 1 point to kidney disease. Stage 4 eGFR Severely reduced kidney function. Start typing and press Enter to search. Stage 2 eGFR Stage 4 eGFR Mildly reduced kidney function, and other findings as for stage 1 point to kidney disease. Very severe or end-stage kidney disease sometimes called established renal failure. The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure, the level of salts in the blood, and the acid-base balance the pH of the blood.
All these jobs make the kidneys essential to keeping the body working as it should. Blood travels to each kidney through the renal artery.
The artery enters the kidney at the hilus HY-luss , the indentation in middle of the kidney that gives it its bean shape. The artery then branches so blood can get to the nephrons NEH-fronz — 1 million tiny filtering units in each kidney that remove the harmful substances from the blood. Each of the nephrons contain a filter called the glomerulus gluh-MER-yuh-lus.
How do my kidneys work?
The fluid that is filtered out from the blood then travels down a tiny tube-like structure called a tubule TOO-byool. The tubule adjusts the level of salts, water, and wastes that will leave the body in pee. Filtered blood leaves the kidney through the renal vein and flows back to the heart. Pee leaves the kidneys and travels through the ureters to the bladder.