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From Madison: Trini took some photos. The number of photos she took is a two digit number. The sum of the digits is The tens digit is 3 more than the ones digit. How many photos did Trini take? A calculus optimization problem. How much of the cardboard is wasted after the largest rectangle that can be inscribed inside the ellipse is cut out?

Answered by Robert Dawson. Three of the articles turned out to be defective with no resale value. He sold the remaining articles at How many articles had he bought? A word problem with fractions. From Cecilia: if one third of a pole is red, one quarter is white and 15m is black what is the height of the entire pole Answered by Penny Nom. How many boats total are in the marina? There are 9 red boats. My child thinks I am wrong. If the numerator of the original faction is squared and the denominator is decreased by 2, the fraction becomes equal to 1.

Let x be the numerator and let y be the denominator of the original fraction.

Write down two simultaneous equation in x and y. Solve these equations to find two possible values for the given fraction. Dealing cards to Melissa and Robert. From Karena: 92 cards in all. Melissa has 3 times as many cards as Robert. How many cards does Robert have? The weight of two dogs. From Renee: Darlene's dog weighed 5 times as much as Leah's dog. Together, the dogs weighed 84 pounds. How much did each dog weigh?

Write an equation and solve Answered by Penny Nom. Olivia and Ray walk to school. From Rebeccah: Olivia and Ray walk to school. What is the total distance,in miles,that Ray walks to school? Two sunflowers.


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From Maurice: Sam and sally planted two sunflowers. Each sunflower grows 1cm each day. Sally's sunflower is 4cm high. Sam's is 12cm high. How high will each sunflower be when Sam's sunflower is twice the height of Sally's? An isosceles triangle and an arc. DC is an arc of a circle, centre A. Find, correct to 1 decimal place, i the area of the shaded region, [4] ii the perimeter of the shaded region.

A foot long fence. From Marsha: I am putting up a fence feet long and want to put the t post every 4 feet how many t post do i need? How many litres of petrol can the tank hold? A fence post problem. From Nicole: In Susan's rectangular garden plot, she put 12 posts on the long sides and 8 posts on the short sides. How many posts did she use altogether? The answer is not The product of a 2-digit number and a 3-digit number. From Nathaniel: The product of a 2-digit number and a 3-digit number is about 50 what are the products Answered by Penny Nom.

Jack and Jill climb two poles. Jack is climbing one pole while Jill climbs the other. If the distance between Jack and Jill is 5 meters, how much higher is Jill than John? Russell is 6 years older than Samantha. From Kelli: Russell is 6 years older than Samantha. In 4 years the sum of their ages will be How old is Russell now? A road around a garden. From hahha: a garden m long and 80 m wide has a road 4 m wide all around on the out side find the cost of paving at the rate of 12 per s. Largest cone in a sphere. From Alfredo: What is the altitude of the largest circular cone that may be cut out from a sphere of radius 6 cm?

A trip to Ottawa from Toronto. A right triangle. From Katie: the shorter leg of a right triangle measures 2 feet less than the longer leg. Question is written exactly this way. Mark's book case. From anne: mark has books in his case. An age related word problem.

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From Cole: Susan and Russell are brother and sister. Susan says that in two years she will be twice Russell's current age. Russell says that he's only three years younger than Susan. How old is each of the siblings? Jason's speed. From jason: the speed of Jason is 12 times faster than everyone. The speed of Jason is mph. Write the equation and solve to find the speed of everyone else. What is the speed of the boat in still water? A boat travels 38 km upstream and 38 km downstream in a total time of 3 hr. A foot piece of PVC pipe.

Three consecutive odd integers. From Maddy: 3 times the largest of three consecutive odd integers is 13 more than the sum of the other two. What are the integers? A poorly worded question. From Marjorie: How do I figure out the following? Dylan's dog weights 12 times more than his pet rabbit. The dog and the rabbit weight pounds. How much does Dylan's dog weigh? Would you explain in detail how I would arrive at the answer so I can convey same to my grandson who is in the 5th grade. A quarter mile row of trees. If the farmer would take the advice, how many trees would he plant? A rectangle and a triangle.

From rajesh: The perimeter of a rectangle is equal to the perimeter of a right-angled triangle of height 12 cm if the base of the triangle is equal to the breadth of the rectangle, what is the length of the rectangle? A wire is bent to form a right triangle. From Lorena: A wire 24 dm is bent to form a right triangle. The ratio of the shorter leg to the hypotenuse is Find the length of the longer leg? From Fred: LJ owned two dogs that weighed a total of pounds. If one dog weighed 10 pounds more than the other, how much did each dog weigh Answered by Penny Nom.

The average of 9 numbers is From rizza: The average of 9 numbers is If 90 and 88 are added to the set of numbers. What will be the resulting average? The average age of a group of 10 students. From sujan: The average age of a group of 10 students was The average age increased by 2 years when two new students joined the group. What is the average age of the two new students who joined the group? Answered by Robert Dawson and Penny Nom. The perimeter and diagonal of a rectangle.

From niniha: the perimeter of a rectangle is 68cm. A second grade word problem. From Beth: How do I explain to my second grader how to find the answer to the problem: My tens digit is 8 more than my ones digit. My ones digit can not be zero. Problem solving. From hubert: a car left the house and travelled at an average speed of 60 kph. A secret number. From jai: it is smaller than half of , it is more than 4 tens and less than 5 tens, the tens digit is two more than the ones digit , together the digits have a sum of What is my secret number?

The sum of two numbers is From Blake: The sum of two numbers is 52 and the difference is What are the numbers? Water usage in Ames. From Abigail: The City of Ames water treatment plant treats 7 million gallons of water per day on average to meet water demands. Hypothetically, if water is withdrawn from a groundwater system with an area of Cutting a round cake so that it doesn't dry out. From James: I'm wondering if there's a simple way to calculate the area between two parallel chords of a circle equidistant from its diameter, or if I have the area, to find the distance between the two chords.

Here's my "problem". You may have heard of the way of cutting a round cake so that it doesn't dry out - make two parallel cuts chords the length of the cake, take the middle piece, then push the two pieces together. So I know the area of a 12" cake, and I want say, exactly an eighth of the cake.

How wide do I cut the centre piece? Now to get even more difficult, the next day I want another eighth from the centre. How wide do I cut the next pieces, and so on? Thanks, James Answered by Harley Weston. Distance, speed and time.

Dissertations & Theses from 2018

They arrive at the same time at the park. How far is the park from the college? Answered by Tyler Wood. From nathanielcabalan: The denominator of a fraction is one more than the numerator. If the numerator is increased by three, the resulting fraction is one more than the original fractional. Find the original fraction. A word problem concerning averages. From Bernie: The average weight of a team of children is 50kg, Todd who weighs 56 kg then joins the team.

The average weight of the new team is How many children in the original team? What will the rest of the set cost? What is the capacity of the container? From Tanzeela: There are pupils in a school. How many boys are overweight? Travelling upstream and downstream. From Mohanad: Howie Sorkin can travel 8 miles upstream in the same time it takes him to go 12 miles downstream. His boat goes 15 mph in still water.

1. Using group work to explore symmetry

What is the rate of the current? Mary's height as a percentage of Michael's height. From Lauren: Mary is 1. Express Mary's height as a percentage of her brother's. How many boards did the carpenter start with? From Yanly: A carpenter has several boards of equal length. After cutting the boards, the carpenter notices that he has enough pieces left over to make up the same length as 4 of the original boards. A triangular chicken pen. From Cierra: Margaret has two lengths of fence, 20 meters and 24 meters, for two sides of a triangular chicken pen. The third side will be on the north side of the barn.

How many different pens can she build if one fence is attached at the corner of the barn? What are all the possible lengths for the barn side of the pen? Not sure what they are asking here What was the selling price? From Con: Apple built 40 32GB wifi iPads, gave away two in a contest, and sold the rest at two times the manufacturing price. What time was it when joe's brother passed him? At noon, his brother set out after him on his motorcycle, following the same route. Robyn and Shaun swim.

From kajinthan: robyn swims four 35m lengths. A circle is divided into three sectors. From atolagbe: the area of a circle is cm square. How fast did Jessica grow? From jasmine: when she was 14 jessica was 5 feet, 4inches tall. Two rectangular prisms. From hannah: two rectangular prisms have a combined volume of cubic feet Prism A has half the volume prism b has what are the volumes of prism a and prism Answered by Penny Nom.

Shadows of a father and son.

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From esada: the father and son cast a shadow of 11 feet and 8 feet,respectively if the son is 4'8'' in height,how tall is the father? Justin and his father went fishing. From Confused: Justin and his father went fishing and together caught 12 fish. Three times the number of fish that Justin caught exceeds 12 by as much as 5 times the number that his father caught exceeds 8.

How many fish did each catch? Riding on a Ferris wheel. From Claire: A Ferris wheel has a radius of 72 feet and its center is 85 feet above the ground. At the top of the Ferris wheel, Sam is in the topmost car. If the Ferris wheel makes two complete revolutions per minute, how high above the ground will Sam be after 10 seconds? Werenich's nickels, dimes and quarters. From London: Ms. Werenich has twice as many dimes as nickels and 4 more quarters than nickels. What would the let statements be of this problem and can you solve it?

Find two numbers with a sum of -8 and a difference of 4. From Elisabeth: Find two numbers with a sum of -8 and a difference of 4. Let x be the greater number and y be the lesser number. Three consecutive whole numbers. From Abhishek: Three consecutive whole numbers are such that if they be divided by 5,3 and 4 respectively, the sum of the quotient is Answered by Chris Fisher. The ratio of boys to girls is From jane: The ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls in the concert hall is After additional 28 boys entered the concert hall, the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls become How many girls are their in the concert hall?

From Joanne: Ashley weighs 5kgs more than Joyce. Their total weight is 41 kgs. What is the weight of Ashley? The sum of the number of senators and representatives is There are more representatives than senators. How many senators and how many representatives make up the Texas Legislature? From alex: In a certain fraction the number by n the denominator is greater than the number by3.

Find the fraction. A fountain surrounded by a walk. Paul is making banana bread. From John: Paul is making banana bread. The number of cups of bananas he uses is proportional to the number of loaves of bread. Which equation represents the relationship between c, the number of cups of bananas, and b, the number of loaves of bread? Some mixed nuts. From cyril: In a rectangle,the length is 1.

Calculate the dimensions of the rectangle. Pizza for How is this problem solved. The dimensions of a room. From jenna: The length of a rectangular room is 2m more than the width. Find the dimensions if the perimeter of the room is 34m Answered by Penny Nom. A bizarre percentage problem. From matthew: by what percent was the child's sodium level beneath the normal range? From ngozi: There are 4 children in the Owens family. Sammy is 56 inches tall, which is 2 inches taller than Olivia.

Find Jamie's height Answered by Penny Nom. Kate, Tess and Nina. From Sam: Kate is 16 yrs. Nina is 8 yrs. The sum of their ages is How old is each? A word problem involving fractions. Reducing the area of a parking lot. From Robin: The school is reducing the area of its 20yd by 50yd parking lot by removing a strip at one end of the parking lot and another strip of the same width from one side.

The new area of the parking lot is said yes. Find the width of the removed strip Answered by Penny Nom. Mixing water and wine. From manish: a man mixes three part of water to one part of wine. When he consumes one part of mixture he realise that the drink is too dilute and hence adds one part of wine to the remaining quantity what is the ratio of water to wine in the new mixture. Mark's books. From Jason: Mark has books in his bookcases he has 11 times as many fiction books as nonfiction books how many fiction books does mark have?

Five cubes. From Bob: Rick has five cubes. When he arranges them from smallest to largest, the difference between the heights of any two neighbouring cubes is 2 cm. The largest cube is as high as a tower built from the two smallest cubes. How high is a tower built from all five cubes? Watching a bouncing ball through a window. From Bob: A ball falls from the roof, at a height of 10m. How many times will the ball appear in front of a rectangular window whose bottom edge is at a height of 5m, and whose top edge at a height of 6m?

Radio direction finders. From Nathan: Radio direction finders set up two points A and B, which are 2. From A, it is found that the bearing of a signal from a radio transmitter is N Find the distance of the transmitter from B. Two tuna boats. From amanda: Two tuna boats start from the same port at the same time, but they head in opposite directions.

The faster boat travels 10 knots per hour faster than the slower boat. At the end of 8 hours, they were nautical miles had each boat traveled by the end of the 8 hour period? Dave is 9 years older than Paul. Paul is 11 years younger than Frances. Please list the children in order from oldest to youngest?! From Malissa: I am attempting to help my son with his math word problem, please help thank you. Kylie and Ethan kept scrapbooks of their grandfather's stories from world war II. Kylie has 6 more than half the number of pages Ethan has.

If Kylie has 21 pages in her scrapbook, how many pages are in Ethan's scrapbook? Problem solving with fractions. If the 3 boys have postcards, how many more postcards does Tim have than Paul? People on a bus. Ben has twice as much as Chris. Three roommates share the rent. What fractional part and percent of the rent does each roommate pay? A ratio problem. From indu: students of a school have been into 2 groups in the ratio , if the group has students, how many students are there in all the school? Tim is standing in a hole.

From Marvel: Tim is standing in a hole that is 4 feet deep. Ben asks him how much deeper is he going to dig the hole. Tim replies he will dig to the level that is 4 feet 2 inches deeper and that then the top of his head will be the same distance below ground level that it is now above. How tall is Tim? Together, Tom and Max have 72 football cards. From Maureen: Together, Tom and Max have 72 football cards. Tom has 2 more than 4 times as many cards as Max has.

How many football cards does Tom Have? Peter bought pizza and drinks. How much had he at first? What the dog weighs. From linda: Sam has a dog and rabbit together they weigh lbs the dog weighs 12 times more then the rabbit what is the dogs weight Answered by Penny Nom. Two bikers race on a circular track.

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From bryan: two bikers race on a circular track. From the start of the race, how many minutes will it be before biker b overtakes biker a. From naomi: My son having trouble a math problem please help with this question a bag of cough drops contains 36 drops. A pool, a school, a park and home. From Selena: The distance from the park to the pool is the same distance as the distance from your house to school. The school is between the pool and your house.

Prove that the distance from the park to the school is the same distance from the pool to your house. A sequence of operations, in order. From jen: multiply 46x23 add divide by 70 subtract 5 I not sure what the answer is.. A concrete walk around a pool. A garden path. From mary: garden path has 8 white slabs, four of the slabs are one third grey, what area of the path is grey Answered by Penny Nom. From Thomas: I'm trying to help my 9th grade child with their homework. The problem is the Length of a rectangle is twice as long as it is wide.

The perimeter is 68m. Find It's length and width Answered by Penny Nom. When the digits are interchange, the new number represented is 3 time the 10 digit of the original number. Find the original number? How many nickles do you have? From Monica: You have 15 more dimes than nickels. Golden Ratio. From Mark: Please Help. I'm trying to help my Child and I have no clue on this math question. Rectangular shapes with a length to width ratio of approximately 5 to 3 are pleasing to the eye.

The ratio is know as the golden ratio. A mixture problem. From Lucy: Hi, For the following question: Ten pounds of mixed nuts contain 50 percent peanuts. How many pounds of peanuts must be added so that the final mixture has 60 percent peanuts? The original pound mixture contained 50 percent peanuts, or 5 pounds. Now you have 11 pounds of peanuts in a pound mixture, more than 60 percent. This result automatically eliminates choices D and E as well.

Why would this result automatically rule out D and E? How can you tell? Thank you for taking the time to answer my question. From Gontsejalo: Your firm held a dance competition. The cost of admission was 20rand per person and 30,50rand per couple. Twice as mant 20rand tickets as 30,50rand tickets were sold. Ann has a bag of marbles. From Carmen: Ann has a bag of marbles. Now left with How many did she had originally? Diego and his dog. After Diego meets john, how much distance did the dog run?

Two numbers whose difference is The percentage of fat in a container of yogurt. From Katy: There is a question that I' having trouble with. It says: "A container of yogurt contains g of water, 54 g of carbohydrates, 12 g of protein and 6 g of fat, what percentage of the yogurt is fat? From Shaneaya: Keikio spent the day bird watching and counted 34 more birds in the morning than in the afternoon.

If she counted a total of 76 birds, how many birds did she count in the afternoon? The strategy will be formulated, piloted, translated and disseminated. Data collected will be validated and analysed to develop the specific tools for policy makers to use. The meta-data collected will form the context to investigating trends in policy, major health problems and investigating the link between the two.

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Differences in health indicators could be compared for benchmarking and to make changes. The opinions of policy makers regarding the tools will also be evaluated. We will collaborate with policy-makers, researchers and civil society through a number of activities including consultation during the development stage, through training workshops and the conference. Dissemination will be multi-modal co-ordinated through websites in formats adapted to different user-groups.

Training of doctoral and post-doctoral students will ensure future researchers interested in this expanding field. At all stages, stakeholders will be consulted. Activity type Higher or Secondary Education Establishments. Website Contact the organisation. Administrative Contact Liz Fay Ms. Chi Le-Ha Vietnam. Project website. Status Closed project. Start date 1 January End date 30 June Urban health for the win Increasing flows of people to urban areas elevates the importance of urban health and related policies. This follow-up initiative went a step further, developing methodology and validated tools for policymakers at all levels.

Comprised of 18 partners from 14 countries spanning Europe to Asia , the consortium described health and health determinants particular to urban areas in Europe. These covered cities in north, south, east and west Europe. Work involved collecting data at urban area level, providing tools for evidence-based policy, and developing methods for cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of urban population health. Partners validated the tools and methods using population-based registries and databases, and applied the tools in the field with a view to ensuring their ease of use for policymakers.

Data from 26 urban areas in Europe are now available for between-city comparisons and benchmarking. As such, policymakers can now apply information in an evidence-based fashion when deciding on topics for urban health policy and interventions. Project partners collaborated with policymakers, researchers, non-governmental agencies and civil society through various activities. These included consultation and training workshops, as well as participation in the European Urban Health Conference in Amsterdam, the Netherlands September Lay users, researchers and policymakers can access the web platforms for data and metadata.

The project has filled a gap in information that is lacking from national data sets. Keywords Urban health, urban areas, policymakers, evidence-based decisions, health indicators. The project describes health and health determinants specific to urban areas in Europe, covering cities in North, East, South, and West Europe. This project adds to information that is already locally available, in that it is the first study to enable reliable comparisons of health status between different cities in Europe. Policy makers can use the information to prioritise topics for urban health policy and for interventions in an evidence-based way.

A tools were formulated, piloted, translated and disseminated. The data was validated and analysed to develop specific tools for policy makers to use. The meta-data collected has formed the context to investigate trends in policy, major health problems, and it has allowed for investigation of the link between the two. Differences in health indicators can be compared for benchmarking and to make changes. In total, data from 26 urban areas in Europe were available for between-city comparisons and benchmarking.

The EURO-URHIS 2 project collaborated with policy-makers, researchers, non-governmental agencies and civil society through a number of activities including consultation during the development stage, through training workshops and through the European Urban Health Conference in Amsterdam, September More detailed information on the justification of methods and instruments that were used, as well as response rates, selection of cities and indicators, and statistical methodology, can be found on our websites: www.

The websites also provide data from other participating urban areas and comparisons between specific cities can be made. The web platforms provide both access to the data and metadata for the lay population, researchers and policy makers. The health requirements of urban areas require research because neither national nor regional based methodology will capture the necessary information that policy makers need to make evidence based decisions on resources for health care.

The objectives were to collect data at UA level, provide tools for evidence-based policy at all levels for urban areas, to develop methods for cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment for urban population health including all relevant determinants of health, to validate these tools and methods by using existing population-based registries and databases, and to apply the tools in the field to ensure they were easy and intuitive to use by policy makers.

Urbanisation is occurring globally but the largest growth in Europe is observed in Central and Eastern Europe. Urban health is a growing field of research internationally. There are a number of issues that affect UAs primarily e. UAs have specific problems associated with health that are different to non-urban areas that national or regional investigations would not identify. Many urban areas have health policy determined at local level. Policy makers require data at urban area level to inform these local policies. Resource allocation is usually at local level in many countries.

However, national and international policy makers also require data at UA level to not only inform evidence based policy making, but also to evaluate the impact of policies. Early results demonstrated the potential importance of continuing the work on urban health indicators. The approach had been highly successful in all 60 urban areas 30 countries that returned the questionnaire. These additions include population density, migration, homelessness, social isolation, sexual minority groups, safe sexuality, single parent families, access to green spaces and local amenities, atmospheric conditions, crime, noise exposure, water quality and sanitation.

This is to provide global, European, national and local urban health policy makers with a range of aggregated health measures and impact measures to help with decision-making. The Urban Audit project has proven that it is possible to collect data at urban area level on a wide variety of indicators to allow comparisons. Other EU projects have investigated UAs for economic indicators, e. Are they useful? Are they applicable? EURO-URHIS 2 informed public policy for the purposes of achieving health gains and to improve delivery of healthcare to European citizens living in urban areas by performing research into trends in population health through health profiles, inequalities and policies.

More specifically: 1. The development of methodology appropriate to the needs of data collection 2. Presentation of data 4. The description of the health profile of European and non-European urban populations using the data collected 5. The development of tools for example health impact and policy impact tools etc.

Training and education of doctoral and post-doctoral research students and the wider community 7. The organisation of a European Urban Health Conference 8. The development and provision of a European training package on urban health tools and indicators 9. The consultation with stakeholders and other users throughout the project The dissemination of outcomes by engagement with civil society especially patient groups engendering debate and fostering an approach whereby users have initiated and expressed desire to participate in further research activities The self-sustainability of the project by linking with other projects In addition to the original objectives, EURO-URHIS 2 investigated more deeply with mixed methods, policy making in urban areas.

This was approved as a no cost extension by our Project Officer and was within the original budget. In depth analyses of urban policies, non-governmental organisations, interventions and priorities were also undertaken to understand decision-making and contextualise the results. The length of this part cannot exceed 25 pages.


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  • Summary Work Package 4 and 5 The results referred to in this section come from Work Package 4, which developed the strategy for collecting the data required, and Work Package 5, which disseminated the instruments, collected and validated the data collected. All outputs were disseminated via the activities of Work Package 2, 8, 9 and Work package 2 Dissemination activities include, email lists resulting in a database of local, regional, national and European contacts, newsletters, a press release, support for other work packages, and links with networks within and outside the EU.

    Work package 6 WP6 has converted, cleaned, and recoded data collected from existing sources, youth and adult surveys in 41 UAs collected in WP4 and 5. Data has been weighted to create datasets that are representative of the UA. Eligibility criteria were developed to ensure high quality data.

    Information on survey methodology and response rates was used to decide if UAs met the eligibility criteria. A subset of relevant indicators was selected for the health profiles. Statistical methods to calculate average health scores on indicators in UAs, and to compare indicators between UAs were evaluated. A storyboard was developed, for the graphical lay-out and contents of the health profiles.

    Most recently, the health profiles were drafted. Work package 7 A review of methodologies used to calculate future predictions of health trends has been completed and a model developed. Sample predictions have been conducted. A review of Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs methodology in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption, analyses using existing national level data and additional data collection have been undertaken.

    Forty-five indicators have been mapped against the Health Impact Assessment HIA conceptual framework and the structure of a community health profile. The development and piloting of the draft urban HIA screening tool has taken place and the synthesis of methodology has begun. A review of the utility of Population Impact Measures PIMs has been completed and the impact of the engagement of policy makers on WP7 had been evaluated. Additional work to investigate the impact of the financial crisis, policy makers adaptation to the crises, in-depth qualitative work on decision making in urban areas and non-governmental organisations has also taken place.

    Work package 8 An updated website platform was required as the original platform was not suitable. The new website was launched in June and there have been in excess of visitors since the launch. Feedback is very positive and planning of the results section of the new website is underway.

    Twitter and LinkedIn are being used to promote the project. Through Twitter, the project has been contacted by the Guardian newspaper to take part in an online discussion on NHS health reforms, invited to submit journal articles, and asked for further information. The programme has been finalised and a call for abstracts made. Work package 10 In addition to the stated workshops, one additional workshop was added in light of feedback.

    Workshop A Sept introduced data collection tools and ideal survey methods. Workshop B Jan finalized the data collection tools and identified UA specific survey methodologies. Workshop C July ensured that each partner reviewed an operational manual describing the data collection procedure. The first dissemination workshop D was delivered to policy makers on 19th Sept Specific Work for WP Preparation of dataset — WP6 cleaned and recoded the collected data and created three different datasets containing adult survey data, youth survey data, and routinely available registration data.

    These datasets were used to make the urban area health profiles, to perform the scientific studies, and were distributed to the URHIS partners for local analysis. Respondents were excluded for a variety of reasons, such as missing data, incomplete questionnaire, outside required age or geographical range. Urban area health profiles — Data from the adult and youth surveys and routinely available data on both urban area and country level were used to create the health profiles. Since not all urban areas were able to collect all data, the exact content of the health profiles may differ between the urban areas.

    Live births: o Accept figures derived from Eurostat for aggregated live births and from UNECE for women aged years at mid-year population. Tuberculosis incidence per , o Accept all figures provided for tuberculosis incidence per , Lung cancer incidence per , o Accept figures provided for lung cancer incidence per , derived from Globocan for Malignant neoplasms o Accept figures provided for male and female malignant neoplasms derived from Eurostat.

    Diseases of the circulatory system: o Accept figures provided for male and female diseases of the circulatory system derived from Eurostat. Diseases of the respiratory system: o Accept amended figures provided for male and female diseases of the respiratory system derived from Eurostat. Transport accidents: o Accept figures provided for male and female transport accidents derived from Eurostat. Suicide and intentional harm: o Accept figures provided for male and female suicide and intentional harm derived from Eurostat. To ensure that the health indicators collected by EURO-URHIS 2 can be used in practice, policy makers and public health experts were actively involved in the process of developing health profiles.

    Their comments and advice were taken into consideration and were used to adapt and improve the urban area health profiles. The final health profiles can be downloaded from the website: www. The final urban area health profiles were released during the final conference on th September in Amsterdam. The health profiles are included as an attachment. All 26 health profiles can also be accessed through the website: www.

    Each profile has been assigned a unique DOI. It can create echo chambers that leads us to believe that what you are seeing through ads is the only opinion or perspective that is right. If we DO like something presented to us as fact, even if it is false, we tend to believe it. Many offline communities are also segregated by political beliefs and cultural views.

    The echo chamber effect may prevent individuals from noticing changes in language and culture involving groups other than their own. Ideological echo chambers have existed in many forms, for centuries. The echo chamber effect has largely been cited as occurring in politics. Some companies have also made efforts in combating the effects of an echo chamber on an algorithmic approach. The intended purpose of this was to expand the breadth of news sources for any given headline, and therefore expose readers to a variety of viewpoints.

    There are startups building apps with the mission of encouraging users to open their echo chambers. This experiment adds a module at the bottom of Buzzfeed News articles to show reactions from various platforms, like Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit. This concept aims to bring transparency and prevent biased conversations diversifying the viewpoints their readers are exposed to.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Situation that reinforces beliefs by repetition inside a closed system. Journalism portal. Retrieved The Baltimore Chronicle. But Blame Yourself, Too". Psychological Science.