Toggle navigation Raru. Edit Cart Checkout Close. Recipient Name. Recipient Email. From Name. From Email. Send Email. The relationship between leucine and glycaemic control is rather complex. In one way, it appears to help with the condition by stimulation of insulin production Zhang et al. However, prolonged usage of excess leucine may accelerate the deterioration of the health condition of the patient Melnik, Melnik surmised that excessive intake of leucine from meat often red meat leads to hyper activation of mTORC1 mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 , a nutrient-sensitive kinase.
The subsequent lack of insulin production will cause the increase of blood glucose as well as other side effects. In parallel, the primarily increased insulin production will also increase insulin resistance, which further complicates the condition. Leucine influence on T2D Melnik, However, Melnik were investigating how excess intake of leucine may contribute to T2D, whereas moderate intake of leucine may be beneficial toward T2D patients.
Zhang et al. Although the paper in question was mainly interested in obesity, there may be some indication that dietary leucine would help with diabetes. With high fat diet mice, having leucine in their water supply lowered the glucose content in their plasma sample after fasting. Although concentration of insulin was lower in high fat plus leucine fed mice, the paper claimed that these mice were more glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive.
However, since these tests were done on healthy mice, more works are needed to test on diabetic mice. Another study found that a mixture of protein hydrolysate and leucine increased insulin level and helped reduce glucose level in blood plasma Manders et al. Their research indicated that while supplementing with additional leucine had a distinct advantage on insulin response from healthy subjects, distinction between the effects of protein supplement with or without leucine was lost in T2D subjects.
It may be explained by T2D patients already having a decreased insulin sensitivity. In addition, postprandial glucose response indicated that both protein supplement with or without leucine supplement could effectively reduce glucose response in both healthy and T2D subjects. Therefore, the authors concluded that protein hydrolysate augments endogenous insulin secretion with or without additional leucine.
However, the authors admitted that there are still more work to be done to be able to conclusively indicate that the role of leucine and its role with diabetes. Also, they showed that glucose responses were inversely correlated with the accompanying insulin responses in patients with T2D. However, this was expected, for the insulin response in the T2D patient did not behave like that of control subjects, suggesting that glucose content measurement should be undertaken on diabetic patients in parallel to healthy subjects.
However, the author maintained that incorporation of leucine should still be considered as beneficial toward improving the condition of T2D.
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As mentioned early on in this section, the induction of mTOCR1 induces insulin production and hence plasma glucose reduction. It seems to positively correlate with muscle growth, thus benefiting diabetic patients in terms of retaining muscle mass Manders et al. Although Norton et al. So the effect of persistent leucine supplement on diabetic subject is inconclusive.
One may also need to consider the potential effect of leucine on different age groups. One study on advanced age male found that prolonged leucine supplement has no effect on glycaemic control or muscle mass augmentation Leenders et al. Meanwhile in another study, a high proportion of leucine was required to stimulate the rate of muscle protein synthesis, particularly in elderly patients as compared to younger patients Katsanos et al.
Over all, much work is required to be done on the subject of protein supplementation for patients with T2D. Therefore, when advising on dietary treatments, considerations of the present condition of the subject is important to keep in mind. Fat is an essential part of a healthy diet. Many biological functions are dependent on fat but as with any other nutrients, problem arise when it is consumed in excess.
In particular, it increases the risk of blocking blood vessels when these lipids enter into the blood stream, and the problem gets further aggravated when coupled with elevated level of glucose American Heart Association, If not controlled carefully, over accumulation of fat and cholesterol will lead to an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease CVD , one of the complications very commonly observed in diabetics.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol has been associated with higher risk for CVD Marz et al. It can be caused by a diet high in trans fats often associated with industrially hydrogenated vegetable fat as well as from fat of grazing animals de Souza et al. Also, Drew et al. Therefore, lowering LDL-C is often considered as a target in management strategy. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol has been associated with lowering the risk for CVD. It is particularly responsive to lifestyle intervention.
If the HDL-C is enriched with triglycerides and depletion in cholesteryl ester with conformational alternation of apolipoprotein A-1, this will render HDL-C more likely to be immobilized on arterial wall Kontush and Chapman, Therefore, management strategy have to consider beyond HDL-C profile alone. Triglycerides TG is known as the most common type of fat in the body.
It is also known that high level of TG is not necessarily the cause of diabetes but an indicator of an individual at risk of diabetes Dansigner, For an example, reducing TG has been found to reduce the risk or delay in the onset of T2D Kruit et al. High level of TG have also been linked with higher incidence of cardiovascular complication, in particular coronary heart disease in an ethnically Japanese study Sone et al.
Therefore, health risk is often associated with high TG level. Lipid improvement may not have a direct positive effect on glycaemic index, however, it has the potential to help in reducing the subsequent complications. As part of a review, Bitzur et al. Therefore, it has been successful in correcting dyslipidemia, a condition that reflects an imbalance between LDL, HDL, and TG, and which is part of the T2D symptoms that can cause cardiovascular disease events. These are but a few examples on how diet may improve the condition of those that have T2D. Micro-nutrients are nutrients such as minerals and vitamins that are required in small quantity while being essential for health Karunasinghe et al.
Anti-nutrients are often referred to as those that decrease the digestibility of nutrients Pal et al. Little quantification has been made when it comes to dietary recommendation on micro-nutrients and anti-nutrients and their effects on T2D. Several metabolic pathways and cellular reactions in the body require minerals and vitamins to act as coenzymes and cofactors.
Unlike the previously established notion that their deficiencies are related to specific diseases, with the progress in nutritional biology research, it has increasingly become clear that these micro-nutrients also have the potential to impact on other chronic ailments such as Types 1 and Type 2 diabetes Mooradian et al.
Indeed, reports confirm that micro-nutrients play a part in improving the diabetic condition Thorne et al. In particular, Boivin et al. Polyphenols from tea can also help with reducing starch, lipid, and protein bioavailability, thus reducing excessive amount of nutrients to be absorbed by the body He et al. This can be an effective tool to combat T2D, as diabetes is often caused by overindulgence in food. In terms of minerals, the best established beneficial effector for diabetics is supplemental chromium Cr Anderson, ; Anderson, ; Sharma et al.
In its naturally occurring form, Cr is the active component of glucose tolerance factor GTF , which renders Cr into the most bioavailable and it is safer than its other supplemental forms like chromium picolinate Vincent, Mineral deficiency interferes with the functioning of insulin, thus affecting the glucose metabolism, and deregulating blood sugar content.
Besides minerals, vitamins also regulate the activity of insulin and thus have been promoted as role players in diabetes management Pittas et al. Furthermore, patients who have diabetes-related CVD also develop the mortality risk factor, hyperhomocysteinemia Hhcys , characterized by very high total homocysteine present in the blood plasma leading to death. Vitamin B6, folic acid vitamin B9 , and vitamin B12 have been used to decrease levels of plasma homocysteine and the risk of CVD in Type 2 diabetics Thornalley and Rabbani, Molecules such as inositol, coenzyme Q10 and carnitine are regulators of various carbohydrate, fatty acid, and protein metabolism pathways.
Although their direct role in diabetes is still unclear, they may be useful to prevent or help in several diabetes-associated effects like diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic neuropathy Diabetes. Thus, regular consumption of micro-nutrients in the form of natural or fortified food or any other intervention strategies supplementing micro-nutrients should be part of diabetes management. Another aspect to consider in dietary intervention is that most foods consumed are processed or cooked. There are some inconsistencies though in such findings. For an example, a report stated that heating with microwaves have no significant effect on starch digestibility Anderson and Guraya, While Zhang et al.
Therefore subsequently, cooking and processing will have an impact to GI value Frei et al. It is also important to know that dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed grain, all affected by cooking and processing, can affect GI Pushparaj and Urooj, For an example, grain such as pearl millet is never eaten raw or as a whole grain. It is milled with the seed coat rich in dietary fiber and micro-nutrients to prepare whole meal flour utilized in preparation of foods.
Processing such as dehulling has been found to cause a significant reduction in protein, polyphenol and phytic acid content Pawar and Parlikar, When put together, all these processes will cause changes in the availability of various nutrients content and should be considered as part of the management program.
While the authors have suggested that it would benefit people who are suffering from diabetes, one problem as they have pointed out, that the predicted GI pGI is higher after pressure cooking, which make it less desirable for diabetics. Other studies from rice and millet have also shown increased SDS content after heat moisture treatment supporting the potential benefit of cooked grain for diabetics Anderson and Guraya, ; Lehmann and Robin, Traditional plant breeding has played a key role in improving plant yield and vigor and recently its emphasis is shifting to improving nutritional quality too Khoshgoftarmanesh et al.
One of the prime example is the breeding of soybean Clarke and Wiseman, As Clarke and Wiseman report, there have been a number of efforts in breeding soybean to reduce its anti-nutrients content. By reducing various anti-nutrients compounds the protein availability in food for human or feed for farm animals has been substantially improved in this crop. This sets an excellent example of improving nutritional quality of the crop through selective breeding. Efficiency of selective breeding can be further improved using molecular markers Yadav et al.
Marker-assisted breeding has been developed recently by identifying genomic regions or even causational genes that led to the development of better crop in terms of resilience, crop value, and nutritional qualities Serraj et al. With new marker-assisted technologies, breeding becomes less time consuming than traditional breeding and will continue to be a major tool for crop development and improvement.
There are also efforts that identified markers showing implication in nutrition Muthamilarasana et al. These markers targets include proteins Kumar et al. Markers that have implication on downstream food processing such as malting for barley and cooking for rice are also available Francia et al. Collection of such markers will allow faster developmental time for producing desirable nutritional traits in various crops. Various diabetic associations have identified micro-nutrients and anti-nutrients that influence the speed of digestion or optimizing nutrition use.
Much has been done to improve micro-nutrients content Cakmak et al. Galili and Amir argued that traditional breeding methods have failed to raise some aspects of nutrition in crop to a satisfactory level. With continually expending knowledge and understanding of the biochemical pathways with molecular control, as well as with improvement of the transgenic technique, one can argue that genetic modification should be considered as a viable option. On the other hand, even though transgenic technology may have its advantages over traditional breeding, it has its limitations.
For an example, one has to consider the acceptance of the general public, as well as other considerations beyond the technology itself Sample, Examples would be the legal frame work for this technology to be used on market products as well as the regulatory framework to conduct these processes safely. Currently, the additional cost to secure transgenic trial sites in Europe can exceed the cost of the experiment itself due to the lack of public support Cressey, ; Kuntz, ; The Telegraph, This in itself has much to desire as there is little evidence to assess the safety of such technology due to the lack of public support to explore and test such technology Nature Editorial, Many experiments, including those for safety assessment, have suffered premature termination Pilate et al.
Perhaps much transparent process, public education, and campaign are needed to win over the trust of the general public if this technology is to be successfully deployed. Over all, based on the above discussion on nutrition requirements of diabetics, some of the targeted benefits of improving staple crops for nutritional traits are clear. Given that there already exist technologies for crop improvement, we can start looking more into improving nutritional qualities such as lipid, fiber, mineral, amino acid and starch contents in our staple crops. There are many dietary advice and options readily available for diabetics.
Some have even provided advice on food groups down to grain type Dansinger, Recently, millets are receiving increasing spotlight in combating diabetes as a dietary option Henry and Kaur, ; Nambiar and Patwardhan, ; Muthamilarasana et al. Indeed, there are evidences to support that millets have many properties making it a good dietary option for diabetics. For an example, an experiment that has used diabetic mice to test different diets has concluded that added millet protein can increase insulin sensitivities, and reduce blood glucose level as well as triglyceride level Nishizawa et al.
Added benefits such as increased plasma level of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also found in their 3 weeks study. The cereal crop millet is one of the most abundant crops grown in India and African continent, and provides a staple food for many poor communities Ravi, Compared to other cereal crops such as wheat and maize, millets are high in nutritional content, gluten free, and have low GI Abdalla et al. They provide high energy, high dietary fiber, protein with balanced amino acid profile, many essential minerals, some vitamins, and antioxidants FAO, ; Lestienne et al.
These play a substantial role in prevention of many human illnesses such as T2D, cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases Kannan, ; Shahidi and Chandrasekara, There is great potential for harnessing these positive attributes through selective breeding. There are various species of millets pearl, foxtail, finger, little and kodo, just to name a few growing in various parts of the world Ravi, These millets are known to be able to survive and produce food in regions that are more prone to drought.
The added benefit for millets is their potential positive contribution toward controlling the symptoms of diabetes Choi et al. They are known to have higher SDS Liu et al. Furthermore well characterized genetic, genomic and breeding methods exist for pearl millet Yadav et al.
Amongst millets antidiabetic properties, a study in India reported that patients with T2D fed with foxtail millet for 90 days showed improved glycaemic control as well as other improvements Jali et al. The patients were given the diet of a combination of foxtail millet, split black gram and spice mix with a high degree of compliance.
The result showed a reduced HbA1c, fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL concentrations. These were all indications that this diet had a positive impact on T2D patients. The reduction of cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C concentration had a positive implication in cardio health Marz et al. One could argue that the effect of medication or the more regulated diet could cause an equal positive impact.
Further, medication has negative side-effects that diet did not introduce. Similar research on effects of finger millet on T2D rat had also been published Shobana et al. The study demonstrated that finger millet may help reduce subcapsular cataract when T2D mice were fed with added finger millet seeds coat. In this experiment, Shobana et al. Two studies from the same group on proso- millet and foxtail millet concluded that diet with mixture of their respective protein faction improved HDL-C concentration as well as reduced insulin and plasma glucose concentration Choi et al.
Though these were positive results in managing diabetes, caution have to be exercised that such results were drawn from protein fraction only and not the whole grain. The more wholesome properties of the grain such as fat and starch portion had yet to be investigated. This did not, however, negate the fact that these millets carried beneficial properties toward managing diabetes. Thus, while there are many indications of dietary health benefits offered by millets in managing diabetes, more research is required. Much is desired toward developing crop products that can offer options to treat diabetes through diet.
Even more research is needed for developing crop that can be used as a raw materials for these dietary products. In light of their benefits, millets hold a key to the well-being for those who suffer from, and those that are at risk of, diabetes. More research must be done in establishing the benefit and the method of deployment of these benefits in combating the global rising tide of diabetes. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The reviewer EP and handling Editor declared their shared affiliation, and the handling Editor states that the process nevertheless met the standards of a fair and objective review. The senior author is supported by Innovate UK Grant National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Plant Sci v. Front Plant Sci. Published online Sep Manwaring , 1 Sandra Pierre , 1 Rakesh K.
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Yadav, ku. Received May 31; Accepted Sep The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
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Abstract Diabetes has become a highly problematic and increasingly prevalent disease world-wide. Keywords: millet, diabetes, hyperglycaemia, crop, nutritional characteristics, diet, plant breeding. Type 2 Diabetes Overview and Associated Complications Diabetes is a chronic disease that is characterized by high level of blood glucose also known as hyperglycaemia. Why Diet Is an Important Intervention Diabetic patients experience fluctuation of blood glucose causing various health complications Coppell et al.
Current Recommended Diets for Diabetics Diets play an important role in controlling the on-set of diabetes, as there is a positive correlation between dietary glycaemic load and increased diabetic risk Sluijs, ; Greenwood et al. Table 1 Various recommendations for diabetic diet summarized in publications Ben-Avraham et al. Open in a separate window. Carbohydrates and Fiber Starch is a carbohydrate that provides much needed energy for day-to-day activities. Micro- and Anti-Nutrients Micro-nutrients are nutrients such as minerals and vitamins that are required in small quantity while being essential for health Karunasinghe et al.
Traits Desired in Plants for Diabetic Dietary Requirement Plant Modification Breeding and Transgenic Toward Targeted Phenotype Traditional plant breeding has played a key role in improving plant yield and vigor and recently its emphasis is shifting to improving nutritional quality too Khoshgoftarmanesh et al. Millets Benefit for Diabetics There are many dietary advice and options readily available for diabetics.
Author Contributions All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Abdalla A. Proximate composition, starch, phytate and mineral contents of 10 pearl millet genotypes. Food Chem. Human high-density lipoprotein particles prevent activation of the JNK pathway induced by human oxidised low-density lipoprotein particles in pancreatic beta cells.
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Diabetes Myths. Hypoglycemia Low Blood Glucose. Cholesterol Abnormalities and Diabetes. Effects of microwave heat-moisture treatment on properties of waxy and non-waxy rice starches. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes.
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